Financial institutions vary in many ways from the traditional, non-financial organization. For many people, the inner-workings of financial institutions are complicated and difficult to understand. For accountants, the traditional rules and procedures used in non-financial institutions must be modified and extended when a financial institution is involved. Our focus in this paper is on one specific financial institution, the commercial bank. In this introductory manual, we will discuss the many reasons for the differences in bank accounting in attempt to give you, the accountant, a better understanding of accounting issues in this unique industry.
In preparing this introduction to commercial bank accounting, we researched a number of sources, including an actual bank controller¡¦s manual. Our extensive research of this manual, a banking textbook, and a number of journal articles and websites uncovered many differences between the accounting methods for commercial banks versus those for other institutions. We have compiled our findings into two main sections. First, Section 1 discusses the financial statements of the commercial bank. We have analyzed each section of the balance sheet to discover where the differences lie between the bank and the traditional company. Then, we discuss the income statement in order to find out what transactions cause a bank to earn income or incur an expense. We also briefly touch on the other two financial statements, the statement of cash flows and the statement of stockholder¡¦s equity. Second, in Section 2, we discuss the regulatory agencies and reporting requirements that apply to accounting for commercial banks. We uncover the ...
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...nk Controller¡¦s Manual.¡¨ Sheshunoff Information Services, Inc. 1992.
Federal Reserve System. http://www.federalreserve.gov/
Gunther, Jeffery, ¡§Financial statements and reality: Do troubled banks tell all?¡¨ Economic & Financial Review. Third Quarter 2000, p. 30-35.
Kane, Edward J., ¡§Taxpayer Loss Exposure in the Bank Insurance Fund.¡¨ Challenge. Mar/Apr 1993, p. 43.
Linder, Wayne, ¡§Assuring the adequacy of loan-loss reserves: Principles for community financial institutions.¡¨ Commercial Lending Review. Summer 2000, p. 44-52
Miller, Roger, ¡§Modern Money and Banking.¡¨ McGraw-Hill, Inc. New York, 1993.
Money: What it is, how it works. http://wfhummel.cnchost.com/capitalrequirements.html
Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. http://www.occ.treas.gov/aboutocc.htm
Securities Industry Association. http://www.sia.com/gramm_leach_bliley/
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