The acquisition of English as a non-native language proves quite problematic for some individuals. Because English was developed using modifications and borrowed words from scores of fundamentally different languages, it would seem to be a language which most peoples of the world could easily acquire. There should always be something about the language and structure that reflects an individual’s native tongue – whether it be phonology, syntax, or semantics. However, the very fact that English incorporates an international lexicon with the respective varied syntactical applications makes English a fairly difficult language to acquire. Research by Cummins (1987) focuses on the length of time needed to acquire English. To achieve the Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) level, a learner must study English from one to two years. However, to acquire the higher Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP), it takes five to seven years.
In the acquisition of English, a normal linguistic behavior is the embedding of words or phrases from the native language into spoken English. This is called code switching. “Baker (1993) lists 10 purposes for code switches: (1) to emphasize a point, (2) because a word is unknown in one of the languages, (3) for ease and efficiency of expression, (4) as a repetition to clarify, (5) to express group identity and status and/or to be accepted by a group, (6) to quote someone, (7) to interject in a conversation, (8) to exclude someone, (9) to cross social or ethnic boundaries, and (10) to ease tension in a conversation” (Diaz-Rico & Weed, 2002). It is my opinion that the frequency of the use of code switching as well as the purposes for...
... middle of paper ...
...er the changing form of the English language over time. As new cultures and languages converged through the millennia to develop into the English with which we are familiar today, how much impact did code switching have on the eventual integration of words from other sources? How much time and how large a population of different languages would be needed to change a lexicon? In how short a time could such a change occur? The opportunity to ponder these questions might not have occurred without the benefit of having taken this course, History of the English Language.
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49 (2), 222-251.
Diaz-Rico, L. T. & Weed, K. Z. (2002). The cross-cultural, language, and academic development handbook. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Second language learners have been influenced by the used of code switching, interfering with the proper acquisition of the target language. Let’s start with what is code switching. Code switching is defined as the use of more than one language in a conversation. (Romaine, 1992:110). There are three types of code switching “tag-switching,” “inter-sentential switching,” and “intra-sentential switching. We will be examining the many reasons why people switch from one language to another and why code switching can be seen as harmful to some while beneficial to others when learning a second language.... [tags: Language, Second language, Multilingualism]
842 words (2.4 pages)
- For my literature review, I chose to examine the ERP components involved in second language acquisition. As a neuroscience major and a Spanish minor, the neural mechanisms involved in the acquisition of a second language is something that has interested me for quite some time. In a particular class I took last year, titled “The Acquisition of Language,” we examined several psychological and linguistic theories that attempted to describe the ways that individuals acquire a non-native language (L2).... [tags: Linguistics, Second language acquisition]
1704 words (4.9 pages)
- In various societies, people use several different languages in conversations between their friends, family and peers. Especially in Singapore, it is not an unfamiliar phenomenon to hear two or more bilingual speakers speaking and code switching between the language English and Chinese, English and Malay, English and Tamil or even Standard English and Singaporean English to each other in a natural and effortless manner. In this line, I have mechanistically relate speech varieties with “codes” and despite having a vast variety of definitions to choose from for code switching; I have decided to use Heller’s definition.... [tags: singapore, heller, confusion]
1389 words (4 pages)
- Language is a medium of communication and a carrier of culture because all that people know about their origin is communicated to them using language. In most cases mother tongues are suitable in expressing ones way of life. The native language is the best in expressing basic societal affairs. Language is the key medium of communication and it should be used in its simplest form because the simpler the language the easier the communication (Diyanni 633-639). ‘Mother Tongue’ a story by Amy Tan tries to take us through the different events one should change the manner in which he or she uses language with the listeners.... [tags: Language ]
1123 words (3.2 pages)
- The functions of Code-Switching in English Language Teaching classroom discourse by Kindergarten teachers in five Elementary schools in an Educational District in Saint Lucia. Introduction The English language teacher is still the main person in the classroom from which students derive many of their language experiences. Therefore, teachers need to remain vigilant in the manner in which they use the language. Teachers who are bilingual speakers may often opt to alternate between languages for particular reasons or do so unconsciously.... [tags: bilingual, education, fluent]
1454 words (4.2 pages)
- In second language instruction (SLI), the role of one’s first language (L1) is often questioned: is it helpful. Does the L1 hinder the progress of second language (L2) learners. This article will discuss the possible effects of L1 on the L2 of learners and how these effects manifest themselves in the classroom construct. I will be discussing Victoria Murphy’s 2004 study of native English-speakers and ESL learners and their strategies for determining how to form the past tense of nonce English words.... [tags: Linguistics, Language acquisition]
1601 words (4.6 pages)
How Learning A Second Language Affect A Children 's Biological, Cognitive, And Linguistic Development
- Nowadays people get married to their significant other who might be a different race or color. A Caucasian male can get married to an African American female and vice versa. People from different cultures, different language speaking individuals get married as well. Now for those with babies or those that are about to have babies might be wondering whether they should expose their children to more than one language because their mother would want their child to know the language she speaks and the father would want the same.... [tags: Linguistics, Language acquisition]
1354 words (3.9 pages)
- Throughout this course, my beliefs have been reaffirmed regarding the literacy needs of culturally and linguistically diverse learners in a few ways. First, I have been implementing sheltered instruction observation protocol in my classroom. “Sheltered instruction teachers use the regular core curriculum and modify their teaching to make the content understandable for ELLs while at the same time promoting their English language development” (Echevarria, Short & Powers, 2008, pg. 42). The sheltered instruction I have been using in my classroom includes slow and clear speech, scaffolded instruction, visual representations, connecting prior knowledge to learned knowledge, cooperative learning,... [tags: Education, Teacher, Language acquisition, School]
1010 words (2.9 pages)
- In our widely globalized world and rapidly changing environment, knowing more than one language is extremely useful. Knowing a second language helps people worldwide to effectively communicate with each other and reach beyond one’s own cultural horizon. Impressively, there are more second-language speakers of English than there are native speakers, according to the historians of English language Richard Hogg and David Danison (423). An even more surprising fact is that there are as many bilingual children as there are monolingual children in the world (Genesee, Paradis, and Crago).... [tags: Second language, Multilingualism]
1184 words (3.4 pages)
Question: A Critical Review of Lindholm, K. J. & Padilla, A. M. (1977). Language Mixing in Bilingual Children. Journal Child Laguage 5 327-335.
- Nowadays, knowing more than one language is important not only just with communication in a multi-culture society like Australia but it also contribute in individual career. Therefore, children are born ready to become bilingual and language learner. Bilingual, according to Kessler (1997) is defined as “the alternate use or more language within the same individual” (p.17). Young children who are acquiring two languages simultaneously from birth appear to mix language at the word level, utterance level and across in small conversation level.... [tags: Language ]
1540 words (4.4 pages)