Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access Essay

Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access Essay

Length: 1943 words (5.6 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Chemistry of LSD and Route of Access


Pharmacologically, the commonly abused hallucinogenic substances
may be divided into two major groups. The indolealkylamines,
including d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and
dimethyltryptamine (DMT) bear a structural resemblance to the
neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). The
phenylethylamines, including mescaline and the
phenylisopropylamines such as 2, 5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine
(DOM, "STP"), are structurally related to dopamine,
norepinephrine, and the amphetamines (Gelenberg, Bassuk,
Schoonover 1991).


Usual doses range from about 25 micrograms to more than 300
micrograms. LSD is known to posses a low level of toxicity; the
effective dose is about 50 micrograms while the lethal dose is
about 14,000 micrograms. These figures provide a therapeutic
ratio of 280, making the drug a remarkably nonlethal compound
(Julien 2001).


d-Lysergic acid diethylamide is a synthetic hallucinogen derived
from an extract of the ergot fungus. The drug is colorless,
odorless, and tasteless. It is usually ingested as part of a
pill or dissolved on a piece of paper (Gelenberg, Bassuk,
Schoonover 1991).

LSD is often added to other substances, such as the back of
stamps, or sugar cubes, which can be handled more easily (Julien

Following oral administration, the drug is well absorbed from
the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to body tissues. Only
small amounts are detected in the brain, however (Gelenberg,
Bassuk, Schoonover 1991).

It also crosses the placenta. The largest amounts of LSD in the
body are found in the liver, where the drug is metabolized

... middle of paper ...

...emoved from the reaction mixture and can be re-employed
in other conversions (Making LSD in the Laboratory, 2005).


Gelenberg, A.J., & Bassuk, E.L., & Schoonover, S.C. (1991). The
Practitioner's Guide to Psychoactive Drugs. 3rd. Ed. (pp. 288,
290). New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Julien, R. M. (2001). A Primer of Drug Action. (p. 234). New
York: Worth Publishers.

Stockley. (2002). Stockley's Drug Interactions. (pp. 906-907).
Great Britain: The Bath Press.

Strang, M. (2004). LSD and Psilocybin- Serotonergic
Hallucinogens: Route of access, brain metabolism, and
neurochemical effects. February 24 2005, from The Shroomery.

(2005). Making LSD in the Laboratory. February 28 2005, from
Temple of the Screaming Electron.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Chemistry and Synaptic Transmitters Essay

- Chemistry and Synaptic Transmitters The most common psychoactive substances can be divided into depressants (i.e., alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics), stimulants (i.e., cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy), opioids (i.e., morphine and heroine), and hallucinogens (i.e., PCP, LSD, cannabis). The brain has different effects to different psychoactive substances. They bind to different receptor types, and can increase or decrease the activity of neurons through several different mechanisms. Consequently, these psychoactive substances have different behavioral effects, different rates of development of tolerance, different withdrawal symptoms, and different short-term and long-term effec...   [tags: Chemistry Science Scientific Essays]

Free Essays
1653 words (4.7 pages)

Chemistry of Pool Water Essay

- Introduction The objective of pool inspection is to protect public health and safety by ensuring the pools are maintained and operated in compliance with the regulations. There are many different aspects of the swimming pool that need to be checked to ensure its safety, not only the water quality, but also the areas around the pool including equipments, recirculation system and etc. Routine pool inspections allow the operators and the inspectors to identify potential problems that require repair or adjustments to avoid accidents from occurring....   [tags: Chemistry]

Powerful Essays
918 words (2.6 pages)

Essay Nuclear Chemistry

- Types of Radiation: • List the three types of Radiation and describe conditions under which each case occurs. Alpha, Beta, Gamma. Alpha radiation/emission - Alpha particles are the nuclei of a Helium atom 42He. Consisting of two protons and two neutrons, positively charged. The nuclei are ejected from heavy, unstable nuclei so as to remove excess protons and neutrons. However, the formed nuclei may still be radioactive in which even further decay will occur. Alpha emissions occur in nuclei with atomic numbers greater than 83....   [tags: Chemistry]

Powerful Essays
1999 words (5.7 pages)

Organic Chemistry Essay

- Chemistry has been called the science of what things are. Its intent is the exploration of the nature of the materials that fabricate our physical environment, why they hold the different properties that depict them, how their atomic structure may be fathomed, and how they may be manipulated and changed. Although organic reactions have been conducted by man since the discovery of fire, the science of Organic chemistry did not develop until the turn of the eighteenth century, mainly in France at first, then in Germany, later on in England....   [tags: Chemistry]

Powerful Essays
1119 words (3.2 pages)

LSD Essays

- LSD LSD is one of the most potent psychoactive drugs known to mankind, and its history is actually a rather curious one. It was synthesized by Dr. Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, in 1938, while Hofmann was working on a series of compounds derived from ergot alkaloids that had as their basic structure lysergic acid (Horowitz, 1976). But it wasn't until 1943, however, that Hofmann took his first 'trip' on this drug when it was accidentally absorbed through the skin of his fingers while he was working with it (Horowitz, 1976)....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
1131 words (3.2 pages)

LSD Essay

- LSD Lysergic Acid Diethyl amide (LSD) has been implicated in a variety of studies to determine its potential for influence on certain neural activities. To date, little that can be certified as concrete fact has been found, though a number of theories with considerable support exist. Although dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine may be implicated in some LSD studies, serotonin seems to be the main focus of scientific inquiry with respect to LSD. Leicht (1996), postulates four theories concerning serotonin (5-HT) pre- and post- synaptic transmitter sites and the potential for LSD to affect these sites, in particular....   [tags: Hallucinogens Drugs Essays]

Free Essays
1050 words (3 pages)

Essay about lsd

- LSD (lysergic Acid Dyethilamide) A Swiss chemist named Dr. Albert Hoffman first produced lysergic acid Diethylmide –or best known as LSD in 1938 (Dye, 1992, p. 2). Hoffman discovered the drug while trying to synthesize a new drug for the treatment of headaches. He obtained the lysergic acid from the parasitic fungus that grows on rye plants known as ergot. From the lysergic acid, he synthesized the compound LSD. He used the compound to test for its pain killing properties on laboratory animals....   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
1479 words (4.2 pages)

Essay about Lsd

- LSD The use of drugs among Americans is rapidly rising. They can be bought and sold almost anywhere, from the streets to hallways of schools. A drug on the rapid rise from the 70's is LSD. Some people attribute this to the fact it is extremely inexpensive, $2-4 a hit, the wrong belief by users that it is a safer drug than marijuana because it isn't physically addicting. However, LSD is a hallucinogenic drug that is very dangerous, despite popular belief. LSD stands for Lysergic Acid Diethylamide....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
770 words (2.2 pages)

Essay about LSD

- The book I chose is titled, “The LSD Controversy.” The author is Maurice S. Trashes, Ph.D. The call number is 615.78 and I read pages 1-50. The first section of the book I read about deals with terminology. The other section I read about involves the general chemical characteristics of LSD. LSD’s complete name is D-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate. Its abbreviation comes from the German Lyserg Säure Diethylamid. The author goes on to define numerous terms for LSD such as hallucinogen, illusinogen, and fantastica....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1018 words (2.9 pages)

LSD Essays

- LSD For thousands of years people have spoke of all types of visions. Whether the visions were from religious groups, Indian tribes, or self proclaimed prophets; all types of people have seen things. This was more than likely occurring with the help of different types of hallucinogens. Hallucinogens have been around since the beginning of time. Some mushrooms, cactus flowers, and even different types of mold are all able to produce hallucinogenic effects. However, it was only within the last century that man actually started to produce his own....   [tags: Papers]

Powerful Essays
1083 words (3.1 pages)