Jackie and Michael are expecting their first baby. Jackie is 32 years old and is in good health. She is 15 weeks pregnant and wants to do everything possible to ensure a healthy baby. Even though they do not have risk factors within their families, she and Michael decide to have an amniocentesis.
The results indicate that their baby is a female with Turner Syndrome. This condition is caused by a missing X chromosome and results in short stature, ovarian failure, and medical problems involving the heart, thyroid glands, and kidneys. Some of these conditions can be treated and managed with great success. The question that arises after diagnoses is whether or not they will choose to terminate the pregnancy with an abortion or carry the child to full term.
The availability of methods that determine the genetic predisposition of a fetus gives rise to a whole array of questions and issues that must be confronted as we develop policies to deal with genetic testing. In this essay, I will present current and future methods for prenatal diagnosis, ethical concerns and related problems dealing with this new technology, my personal opinion on the issue, and finally, future goals in the science of genetics.
All of us are potential carriers of several deleterious recessive genes that could be lethal to our offspring if combined with another recessive allele carrying the same fate (IOM 1994). The chances of a genetic disease being passed on are 1 in 100 Americans born today (March of Dimes 1997). Because of the risks involved, many people are having prenatal tests to examine the genetic makeup of their fetuses. For many couples, this option...
... middle of paper ...
...able to cure diseases we never dreamed possible, and the lives of humans will be improved eminently.
Arc. Genetic Discrimination. Obtained from WWW 10/09/97: http://www.the.arc.org/depts/gbr03.html
Botkin, Jeffrey R. Fetal Privacy and Confidentiality. Hastings Center Report, Sept.-Oct. 1995:32-39.
Institute of Medicine. Assessing Genetic Risks. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1994.
March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. Genetic Testing and Gene Therapy: What They Mean to You and Your Family. Obtained from WWW 10/09/97: http://ubeclu.unibe.ch/insel/GENETEST.HTML
Mattei, Jean-Francois. Prenatal Diagnosis. World Health, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1996:22-23.
Morejon, Diana Punales. Commentary. Hastings Center Report, May-June 1996:21-22.
Weatherall, D.J. The New Genetics and Clinical Practice. Oxford University Press, 1991.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Given advancements in technology and medicine, genetic screening and testing is becoming more commonplace in our society. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) defines genetic screening as “a search in a population for persons possessing certain genotypes that (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease, (2) may lead to disease in their descendants, or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease” (NHGRI, 2005). The term genetic testing is similar, but differs in that it only targets those individuals believed to be at high risk for a genetic disease.... [tags: costly diagnosis, treatment, genetic intervention]
1911 words (5.5 pages)
- The human genome consists of all the genes that make up the master blue print for building a human being. There are about one hundred thousand genes concealed inside of the nucleus of each cell. The genes are tangled inside of an elongated genetic structure that is called the chromosome. Mapping and eventually decoding the human genome will enable us to provide strategies to diagnose and possibly prevent different genetic diseases, and disorders. Eventually, we may even unravel the mysteries of human embryonic development, as well as gain insights into our evolutionary past.... [tags: Essays Papers]
3254 words (9.3 pages)
- A new type of advanced prenatal test called microarray analysis has recently been developed allowing doctors to examine fetal DNA for small genetic variations that the standard prenatal test, karyotyping, is unable to recognize (Winerman, 2013). Despite its advanced testing capabilities, the development of the microarray analysis test has brought up some ethical debate. Wapner, a reproductive genetics expert who led a study comparing the two prenatal tests, asserts that microanalysis testing should be offered to all women.... [tags: fetal dna, genetic variations, prenatal tests]
1275 words (3.6 pages)
- ... Either way, preimplantation genetic diagnosis would eliminate the doubt of parents having a baby with defective genes leading to a scenario where they may wish they hadn’t had the child. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis isn’t a procedure that doctors are able to do to every pregnant mother because it requires informed consent. Informed consent is important so that she fully understands the testing procedure, the benefits and limitations of the test, and the possible consequences of the test results.... [tags: genetic engineering]
2639 words (7.5 pages)
- The conclusion from the research of this paper indicates that social networks sites are here to stay. Social network sites need to convey a sense of responsibility. Based on the increasing level of social sites engaging in ecommerce, communication and socialization, the need of privacy protection is passed on to individuals. What this research paper has demonstrated is that there are implications users need to be aware of before signing up and placing their profile on these social network sites.... [tags: Social Networks]
837 words (2.4 pages)
- Facebook is currently largest social networking site in the world based on monthly unique visitors – attracting 130 million unique visitors every day (Alexa Inc. 2012). The site’s popularity exploded in 2007 and it bypassed its social networking rival, MySpace, in April 2008 (Phillips 2007). Over the last few years Facebook has impacted people’s social lives in various ways. With its availability on modern smart phones, Facebook enables users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and peers wherever they are in the world as long as they have internet access.... [tags: Social Networking, Social Network]
1433 words (4.1 pages)
- In much of the literature, corporate social responsibility (CSR) does not have a clear working definition. Therefore, this paper will address many aspects of CSR. For instance, Gee and Norton (2013) conducted a study pertaining to the responsibility and implications of CSR. The primary conclusion of this study explained societies and stakeholders are dependent on organizational leaders to produce wealth through their organizations. Moreover, the findings from this study indicated that stakeholders view corporations and its role in society responsible and accountable for its actions.... [tags: Leadership, Management, Social responsibility]
963 words (2.8 pages)
- Most child development causation research has focused on genetic inheritance, and environmental contexts such as social cultural and community influences as dominant factors in physical and cognitive development. I believe that prenatal environmental influences have been overlooked in much research to date. By reviewing the journal “Perinatal exposure in later psychological development and behavioral disabilities” I will emphasis the importance of healthy living to later cognitive development in infancy and early childhood.... [tags: Prenatal Care, maternity, pediatrics]
910 words (2.6 pages)
- There are many factors that are integrated into the successful development of a child from Prenatal growth into toddlerhood. Teratogens (outside factors) have a great impact on the babies’ inutero development. Some outside factors like second-hand smoke, smog, or fumes from cleaning chemicals can cause negative effects on the child inside the womb. A few major affects from teratogens could result in low birth weight, head circumference, slow physical growth as well as an effect on mental, behavioral and motor skills (Berk, 2003).... [tags: Prenatal Growth]
1686 words (4.8 pages)
- How standardized are standardized tests. In America, we strive to perfect them as well as give our students an education they deserve but at what cost. Standardized tests have been the easiest way to ultimately evaluate a student against every other student in America. However, standardized tests are not as great as they are made out to be. We need to take a step back and look at the faults of standardized tests. Quite simply: Standardized tests are not standardized. Standardized tests are biased to certain students whether it is race, or even how much money the parent(s) earn.... [tags: Standardized Tests Essays]
1977 words (5.6 pages)