Modern Western society has placed an emphasis on "healthy living." A well-balanced diet, exercise and healthy lifestyle habits; such as not smoking, moderate alcohol use, and preventive health care, are all very important to physical well-being. In their quest for a longer life and increased happiness, Americans have made great strides towards an healthier lifestyle and, in particular, an improved diet. Many individuals have attempted to lower fat intake and decrease excess calorie consumption. In a growing number of more recent cases this includes following a vegetarian diet. Vegetarianism is on the rise and was officially supported by the American Dietetic Association in 1993:
"It is the position of The American Dietetic Association that vegetarian diets are healthful and nutritionally adequate when appropriately planned."http://www.fatfree.com/FAQ/ada-paper
What is a "Vegetarian Diet?"
There are different types of vegetarian eating patterns, differing in the extent to which they exclude animal products. Vegans or total vegetarians only eat plant foods, which include legumes or dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. Lactovegetarians eat plant food and include cheese and other dairy products. Ovo-lactovegetarians also include eggs. Semivegetarians are the least exclusive because they do not eat red meat but include chicken, fish, dairy products and eggs with plant foods. This paper will focus primarily on those individuals who include some animal products in their diet. These three types of vegetarians must still plan their diets carefully to include the nutrients needed for survival: such as protein, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc.
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...lin, L.J. and Burke, V. (1995) Vegetarian Diet Components, Protein and Blood Pressure: Which Nutrients Are Important? Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 22, 195-198.
Craig, Winston J. (1994) Iron Status of Vegetarians. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 123-1237.
Janelle, Christina K. and Barr, Susan I. (1995) Nutrient Intakes and Eating Behavior Scores of Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Women. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 95, 180-186, 189.
Key, Timothy J. A., Thorogood, Margaret, Appelby, Paul N. and Burr, Michael L. (1996) Dietary Habits and Mortality in 11,000 Vegetarians and Health Conscious People: Results of a 17 Year Follow Up. BMJ, 313, 775-779.
Weaver, Connie M. and Plawecki, Karen L. (1994) Dietary Calcium: Adequacy of a Vegetarian Diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 1238-1241.
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