The fall of communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union marked the end of an era in which official ideology and state policy often masked the reality of citizens' lives. This contradiction was particularly acute for women, a group that the Soviet model of communism was intended to emancipate (Basu, 1995; Bystydzienski, 1992; Corrin, 1992; Einhorn, 1993; Millarand and Wolchik, 1994; Nelson and Chowdhury, 1994; Rueshchemeyer, 1994). Under the guise of Marxist-Leninist ideology, women were accorded an equal right to work and to participate in the building of socialism. The Soviet model, which was imposed to a greater or lesser extent on all of the Eastern European countries, was meant to embody this precept.
In order to mobilize women into the work force, the party-state provided numerous social programs--free day care, subsidized school supplies and clothing, guaranteed maternity leave, and nearly full employment. Women, however, were hardly emancipated through these programs. They were concentrated, with a few notable exceptions, in a "pink collar ghetto" of low wage and low prestige jobs and often given employment well below their educational qualifications. Moreover, the "emancipation" accorded them by state officials resulted in an extreme "double burden" (Basu, 1995; Bystydzienski, 1992; Corrin, 1992; Einhorn, 1993; Millarand and Wolchik, 1994; Nelson and Chowdhury, 1994; Rueschemeyer, 1994). They were expected to perform both paid and domestic labor, fulfilling most (or all) of the household and parenting duties without modern conveniences. These superwomen worked full-time jobs and then came home to prepare meals and clean...
... middle of paper ...
Lijphart, Arend. "Comparative Politics and the Comparative Method." American Political Science Review. 65 (1971): 682-693.
Millarand, James and Wolchik, Sharon, eds. The Social Legacy of Communism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Nelson, Barbara and Chowdhury, Najma, eds. Women and Politics Worldwide. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
Przeworski, Adam and (?) Teune. The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: John Wiley Sons, 1970.
Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, ed. Women in the Politics of Post-communist Eastern Europe. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.,1994
Scheppele, Kim Lane. "Women's Rights in Eastern Europe." East European Constitutional Review. Winter 1995.
Slay, Ben. "Rapid versus Gradual Economic Transition" Economics. August 1994. United Nations Statistical Yearbook, 39th Edition. 1994.
"Statistical Abstract" 1994.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The era that preceded the formation of the Soviet Union was earmarked with social unrest, famine, and failed governments. After many struggles, many smaller soviet republics joined to form a large conglomerate nation, known as the Soviet Union in 1922. Vladimir Lenin, leader at the time, replaced the failing capitalist government with a communist government. . At the end of WWII, most of Eastern and Central Europe’s countries were being occupied by the soviet army. They came to be controlled by the Soviet government and pulled back behind an “iron Curtain”.... [tags: Communism Essays]
1058 words (3 pages)
- The Fall of Communism The fall of communism can be linked to several reasons. Some of these reasons were internal while other were the results of outside influence. For a form of any type of government to work the people must support it, true a government can use force to make their populace submit to the will of the government as with China in Tiananmem Square. In that case, the government use armed military force to put down student demonstrator demanding for democracy reform. Meanwhile over in Eastern Europe the people are able to force a change of government.... [tags: Communism Essays]
365 words (1 pages)
- The Roman Empire was, without a doubt, the most powerful governing body in the Mediterranean that ever was. At the peak of the Roman Empire, in the mid part of the first century, it covered about half of Europe, much of the Middle East, and the north coast of Africa. So why did Rome fall. There was not one cause that led to the fall of Rome, but many things occurring in succession to each other. After the reign of Tiberus, there were many poor leaders, two of which were Caligula and Nero.... [tags: Decline of Ancient Rome]
3876 words (11.1 pages)
- In 1989, the world saw the fall of the United Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R.), which was also known as the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union was a block of 15 Communist Eastern European states that was ruled by one government with various puppet governments located throughout the states. Its collapse brought about new issues that the world had never had to deal with before. The fall of such a large block of Soviet states created many problems and some of the solutions that were used to solve these problems, as well as many of the tensions that were created during this time, still affect the world today.... [tags: World Politics, World History]
1873 words (5.4 pages)
- In the novel, Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe, the setting sets forth in Umofia, a lower Nigerian Tribe and Mbanta, Okonkwo’s mother’s kinsmen. The novel begins with a man, whose name is Okonkwo, a noble warrior, resides in Umofia, with his three wives and nine children. Okonkwo is haunted by his father, Unoka’s disgraceful past. Okonkwo desires his son to be a tough, powerful warrior. Thus, this being said causes havoc upon Okonkwo’s families, tearing Nwoye and Okonkwo apart. Meanwhile, missionaries visit the nine villages convincing the villagers to believe their religion and abandon their own beliefs and traditions.... [tags: Literary Analysis, Achebe]
1736 words (5 pages)
- Recent literature has established an inseparable relationship between the Islamic Empire of the 15th century and the Eastern Roman Empire. The emphasis is less on Islamic forces acting as a separate and direct antagonist against Byzantines to their fall, but rather a series of circumstances that gradually weakened the empire until it fell in 1453. Within the most recent decades scholars have begun to examine at the international negotiations and cultural exchanges between Byzantines and Muslims to establish both empires were much closer than early historians believed.... [tags: Interactions, Roman Empire Fall]
1968 words (5.6 pages)
- Gender disparity impacts numerous aspects of everyday life. It influences our work or interactions with others and our home life. It impacts our work by the jobs and positions that certain genders obtain and their salaries. Likewise, it controls how we react to others based on expectations made for our gender. For instance, those who work in customer service tend to be female and are expected to be kind to put customers at ease. It impacts families through the division of work given to spouses based on their gender or perhaps their income.... [tags: gender gap, work force discrimination]
563 words (1.6 pages)
- . Summary of Evidence Prior to the Second World War, most of the women who actually worked were from the lower working classes, since most middleclass women did not work outside of their home. These women were expected to take care of the household, look after their children and provide emotional support for their husbands whereas the women who were from a more poor background were cooks, laundresses and maids. (Rickiki) There were many opinions about women working during the time; some thought the jobs that working women had should have been given to the unemployed men, while others believed that women from the middle class or above should never lower themselves in order to work.... [tags: economic, benefits, work, women's role]
521 words (1.5 pages)
- The Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe Many political beliefs exist. Everyone has the right to chose what to believe in, what ideas to have, what to seek and how to achieve his goals. Political science is not very defined and strict. Specific rules saying that if one believes in a certain idea he should join a certain party do not exist. Certain things match certain group of people and other things this group of people would not accept. The same principle can be applied for countries. Communism appears to be successful for China, but it failed for Eastern European countries.... [tags: History Soviet Union Historical Papers]
1994 words (5.7 pages)
- The Effect of the External Environment on Work in Australia This essay considers how changes in the external environment of organisations have altered the world of work. Australia is currently experiencing a period of economic growth. But some new challenges have appeared. Australian organisations are facing skill shortages and an aging workforce. This shortage has been addressed by introduction of new technology in workplaces and influx of immigration workers. Organisations in Australia, similar to those in other developed economies, are also struggling with changing workforce demographics, changing nature of work, incorporating and utilizing the rapid advances in technology, and addressin... [tags: Business Environment Work Force]
1980 words (5.7 pages)