The concept of adults as learners emerged both in this country and in Europe shortly after World War I; however, only in the last few decades has the theory of adult learning matured. Knowles, Tough, Houle, and Park, among others, have written extensively on the idea of the adult learner. In Tennant's book (1997), he discussed Knowles' adult learning theory. Knowles used the term andragogy to label adult learning theory. The andragogical model of the adult learner is based on the assumptions that adults need to know; adults have a need to be self-directed learners and have a self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions and for their own lives; adults bring reservoirs of their own experiences that posed as a significant resources in the process of learning; adults come ready and motivated to learn what they need to know in order to cope; and while adults are aware of external motivators (better jobs, promotions), it is internal pressures (job satisfaction, self-esteem) that are the most powerful motivators (Tennant, 1997).
While adult learners are constantly seeking specific information and knowledge that is relevant to their immediate problems, and are aware that they would benefit from further education, many are not interested in a standard long-term course of study. They do not have the time or energy to become involved in a traditional education system, and their concerns are context-dependent, focused on specific information relevant to their immediate concerns (Tennant, 1997). Given this information, it is natural that educators look to this relatively new phenomenon technology, namely, the Internet for Web-based learning opportunities.
... middle of paper ...
... learners with a wide variety of learning styles.
Henke, H. (1997). Evaluating web-based instruction design [online]. Retrieved January 24, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://scis.nova.edu/~henkeh/story1.htm
Lohr, L. (1998). Using ADDIE to design a web-based training interface [online]. Retrieved April 1, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://www.coe.uh.edu/insite/elec_pub/HTML1998/id_lohr.htm
McManus, T.F. (1995). Special considerations for designing internet-based education. Technology and Teacher Education Annual, 1995, 32, 51-57.
Tennant, M. (1997). Psychology and adult learning (2nd ed.) (pp. 9). New York: Routledge.
Twigg, C.A. (1994). The need for a national learning infrastructure [online]. Retrieved January 24, 1999 from the World Wide Web: http://18.104.22.168/program/nlii/keydocs/monograph.html
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Adult Learner An adult’s willingness to learn is not related to his or her ability to learn. Adult learners may be "education wounded" from earlier learning experiences and require "unlearning" to become an effective adult learner. Adult learners are more than just machines processing information. Adult learners come with a mind, memories, conscious and subconscious worlds, emotions, imagination and a physical body, all of which interact with learning. The adult learning process is much more than the systematic acquisition and storage of information.... [tags: Learning, Psychology, Educational psychology]
1738 words (5 pages)
- First Subtopic: The History and Conceptualization of Andragogy Edward Lindeman is thought by many to be the founder of contemporary adult education. His work in the area of adult education included the writing of articles, books, public presentations, assistance in the collegiate system as a lecturer of social work and as an associate pastor in the church (Brookfield 1986). Lindeman and Martha Anderson traveled to observe and analyze the German Folk High School system and the worker’s movement. Consequently, Lindeman and Anderson’s comparative research lead to the breakthrough of the German perception of andragogy.... [tags: Theory of Adult Learning ]
1327 words (3.8 pages)
- It is my conviction that the noble profession of instructing teachers is the greatest, most powerful contributor to nation building. Teachers, within the school system, have the responsibility of imparting knowledge, acting as agents of socialization, creating responsible, productive members of society and guiding students towards the achievement of their goals. It is, therefore, important that great emphasis be placed on training teachers, since in education teachers are viewed as significant contributors to the quality of students produced.... [tags: Andragogy, adult instructor, school system]
1170 words (3.3 pages)
- “Transformative Learning Theory: Connections with Christian Adult Education”. In this article, Ellen L. Marmon is expressing a new visionary idea of how to apply the Transformative Learning Theory, but working with adults. The main focus is the Christian Education and even though there are different ways to transmit information, she truly believes that an effective one is teaching grown-ups and not just having a learning process during the childhood and teenage years, as the majority usually think.... [tags: Learning, Knowledge, Adult, Machine learning]
898 words (2.6 pages)
- The saying, “You can’t teach an old dog new tricks”, could be a bad assumption about adult learning. Learning new trades or skills should be a live long process for all adults. The idea of learning from Marcia Connor‘s perspective, on How Adults Learn, states “we learn from everything the mind perceives (at any age). Our brains build and strengthen neural pathways no matter where we are, no matter what the subject or the context” (Connor pg. 2). Andragogy, the theory of adult learning, has become a widely studied subject by educational psychologists.... [tags: adult Education, teaching]
1182 words (3.4 pages)
- ... Older learners suffer from memory decline especially after forty where it is hard to acquire and learn, organize new material. Decline in memory worsens with aging and a repetition becomes a necessity to acquire the knowledge. It is important to understand the learners` intelligence as it is "The first is the framing of more holistic conceptions of adult intelligence that are grounded in the real lives of adults of all colors, races, and ethnic backgrounds”( Merriam and Cafferella, 1999). It is important to look at the learner`s mind and the contextual interaction learning environment.Additionally, Internal and external factors contribute to the intellectual capabilities, “"This is espe... [tags: methodologies and tools]
962 words (2.7 pages)
- Introduction This essay will address the theoretical bases and functioning of a program that is designed to work with adults (students age 19 and over) who do not possess a high school diploma to help them enter a higher education program. The mission of the program will be carried out in two phases. The first phase consists of assisting adult students with GED test preparation materials and helping them pass the exam. The second phase, which will take place after completion of the first phase, will be to administer a series of college preparation courses, and assist the student with college entrance exams so that they can begin a college degree or certificate seeking program.... [tags: Adult Education Theory]
2531 words (7.2 pages)
- Trauma and Adult Learning Effects of Trauma on Learning Adults experiencing the effects of past or current trauma may display such symptoms as difficulty beginning new tasks, blame, guilt, concern for safety, depression, inability to trust (especially those in power), fear of risk taking, disturbed sleep, eroded self-esteem/confidence, inability to concentrate, or panic attacks (Mojab and McDonald 2001). Some people may manifest no symptoms; at the other end of the spectrum is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, characterized by flashbacks, avoidance, numbing of responsiveness (including substance abuse), persistent expectation of danger, constriction (dissociation, zoning out), and memory im... [tags: Adult Education Learning Essays]
2146 words (6.1 pages)
- As an educator, it is my role to teach as well as learn. The role of a teacher allows me to experience both Andragogy and Pedagogy. “Andragogy” is “the art and science of helping adults learn "where as “Pedagogy is the art and science of teaching children” (Knowles, 1984, p. 13). In my profession, it is a daily task to teach concepts to children. Children are generally, teacher directed learners meaning, they are always looking to the teacher to guide them in their learning. They seek out answers and need direction to what they will be learning and what activities are provided to solidify the learning concept.... [tags: Feedback, Life Experiences]
861 words (2.5 pages)
- Volunteering and Adult Learning "The history of adult education has been a history of voluntary activity and voluntary association" (Ilsley 1989, p. 100). Today, volunteerism, and the growing field of volunteer management, continue to reflect close associations with adult education. Research and practice in adult education can inform the development of learning opportunities for volunteers. With this in mind, this Digest describes some of the similarities between the fields of volunteer management and adult education and examines some of the types and methods of learning that occur in the context of volunteering.... [tags: Volunteer Adult Education Educational Papers]
1805 words (5.2 pages)