The debate with-in the anthropology field has been heated over the evolution of the human and the events that have lead us to where we are now. One of the major questions that is debated is how did we, humans-large brained and small jawed, evolve from primates-large jawed and small brained. Interestingly enough, this debate is now being directed from outside the field; by biologists and plastic surgeons. On march 25, 2004, Doctors Stedman (and others) published their findings in Nature (VOL 428) under the title Myosin gene mutation correlates with anatomical changes in the human lineage. Their findings point to the gene myosin and its mutated form MYH16 and that the mutation that toke place some 2.4 million years ago as a major step in the development of a larger brain that we now as humans have. In this paper I aim to outline what they have discovered and point out some of the controversy surrounding the findings. It is not my goal to understand how the gene functions, but to rely on accepted judges conclusions that the gene is mutated but I will explain what this can say about the formation of bone structure.
What the researchers found centers on the MYH16 mutation and the original myosin gene, a protein that builds strong muscular jaws. Myosin is a protein that works with other proteins to contract muscles, more importantly jaw muscles. The mutation of myosin, MYH16, causes a weaker bite. In their experiments they looked at macaque monkey and human genes to determine how this mutation worked. They found that the gene myosin only worked in the muscles of the head used for chewing and biting. The difference between the two subjects was...
... middle of paper ...
Stedman, Hansell, et. al. Myosin Gene Mutation Correlates with Anatomical Changes in the Human Lineage. Nature, Vol 428, March 28, 2004. The Nature Publishing Group. www.nature.com/nature
Associated Press. Gene Mutation Said Linked to Evolution.
Hopkin, Michael. Jaw-Dropping Theory of Human Evolution.
Kreeger, Karen. Myosin Mutant Points to Human Origins.
Ananthaswamy, Anil. Early Humans Swapped Bite for Brain.
Reuters. Scientists: Humans traded jaw strength for big brains.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- A paralegal new to the field has many options as far as career opportunities. One major decision for a paralegal pursuing a career at a law firm is whether or not to seek employment at a small or large firm. Taking into consideration some of the pros and cons of both small and large firms will give oneself an understanding on which to set their criteria for their final decision. Law firms with 25 or fewer attorneys are usually considered small law firms. Since small laws firms out number larger law firms, the majority of all paralegals work for small firms.... [tags: small, large, firm]
614 words (1.8 pages)
- ... Also both types of campuses vary in location so if a student wants to live in the city of in a rural area either type of campus would be available to them. Though both type of campuses have similarities and which is chosen by the student depends on which they feel more comfortable attending. Large college campuses have many benefits for students. There are a large number of majors and majors to choose from. Also there are a large number of extracurricular activities. For people who are interested in sports, large college campuses are usually the best choice.... [tags: size, large, small, social, majors, class]
550 words (1.6 pages)
- Introduction and Summary One of the hottest issues of today is climate change. The increasing evidence for the danger caused to our planet by global warming is still faced with many who doubt, but the main point of Robert H. Frank's New York Times article, "A Small Price for a Large Benefit" is that the pressing nature of this issue ultimately doesn't leave any time for doubt. The article is based on evidence given by the Integrated Global Systems Model at MIT, which predicts how much an increase in overall global temperature will be by the end of the century.... [tags: Climate Change]
685 words (2 pages)
- ... 3. To determine whether information generated by Cost Accountants can be used in improving the profitability of small scale manufacturing industries. 4. To verify whether detailed information for planning, control and decision-making in small scale manufacturing industries are provided by Cost Accountants. 1.4 RELEVANT RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. How can information provided by Cost Accountants help in minimizing cost incurred by small scale manufacturing industries. 2. How effective are Cost Accountants in improving productivity level in small scale manufacturing industries.... [tags: small-medium enterprises management]
1252 words (3.6 pages)
- ... They need a person to manage their finances, make sure they have enough money for the school lunches, school events, and anything else that requires money. When working for a small company there is some good things that can come out of it. Your travel time requirement is less than the travel time for a bigger company. There is a shorter commute to clients. Your clients are closer to you in a smaller company than in a bigger one. Bigger companies tend to have more clients so you tend to drive longer distance whereas with smaller companies you have fewer clients that live closer.... [tags: accountant, financial burden, women]
1111 words (3.2 pages)
- Introduction: To understand the world’s climate, how it has changed and how it will change is quite a difficult task; a task that is extremely controversial. Scientists have been doing numerous small scale experiments and extrapolating the data to predict future trends in climate and emissions. This paper will show how extrapolating dating from small scale experiments is not always accurate and have a large margin of error. The paper will discuss the various methods that environmental scientists use in attempting to extrapolate data from small scale experiments.... [tags: Scientific Method Climate Change]
1308 words (3.7 pages)
- Most people know basically what cancer is. Many people know the different types of cancers there are. What a lot of people do not know is that every general type of cancer there is there are sub groups, more specific types of these cancers, (ex. Lung cancer) there are 3 types of lung cancer. The 3 types are: non-small cell lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, and lung carcinoid tumor. We are going to focus on small cell lung cancer. What some of the risk factors are. What are the different ways to determine the presence of the cancer.... [tags: carcinoid tumor, small cell, non small cell]
1375 words (3.9 pages)
- Abstract Small businesses face economic uncertainty, overwhelming legislative regulations, and employee retention problems. Small Business represents more than 99 % of all employers and employs more than one half of the private sector. It also generates one half of the United States private G.D.P. ( PR Newswire, Oct 29, 2014 pNA). In light of the significance of small business to the economy, it should be a grave concern when a third of small business owners rate the overall health of the United States economy as their biggest worry, rating higher than ter... [tags: Small Firms, Entrepreneur]
1887 words (5.4 pages)
- All Creatures Great and Small by James Herriot Summary: This book is an autobiography of sorts. James Harriot tells of his life as a vet in the Yorkshire countryside of England. Although the book is one large tale, starting with is internship with Siegfried Farnon and ending with his marriage to Helen, smaller stories about his dealings with his “patients” make the book seem like a collection of short stories. Mr. Harriot tells of how he delivered a calf in the middle of the night, or how he had to deal with an interestingly slow family going to a play.... [tags: All Creatures Great and Small]
352 words (1 pages)
- Should a child be put in a small class or a large class. So as a parent would you send your child to a class with over 30 kids. Many people have advocated that children, especially those in grades K-6, should not have to be in a class of 30 kids. A child’s first couple years of school should be a place of comfort to these kids, not a place of distress and confusion. Studies have shown that children who are taught in small classes are likely to achieve more later on, whereas those who begin school as a part of a larger class, do not.... [tags: essays papers]
2638 words (7.5 pages)