Workplace Drug Testing: Review of Psychological, Financial and Legal Implications

Workplace Drug Testing: Review of Psychological, Financial and Legal Implications

Length: 3238 words (9.3 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

     Human resource practitioners and I/O psychologists have at their disposal a host of personnel assessment techniques. For example, traditional predictive measures used to screen job applicants have included the use of application blanks, job interviews and psychometric measures of personality and cognitive ability. For the most part these instruments attempt to predict an applicant's potential for success by estimating her current level of functioning on some psychological construct that is believed to be related to job performance. Recently, however, personnel professionals have added a unique assessment technique to their arsenal. Unlike traditional predictive measures of job performance- mental and motor functioning and personality attributes- drug testing attempts to evaluate candidates by chemically screening their urine for mind-altering substances. By collecting urine samples from job applicants and performing chemical tests on them, employers are able tell whether or not these individuals have illegal substances in their blood streams (Muchinsky, 1997). While a negative result on a drug test certainly does not predict a high level of job performance, those applicants who test positive for drugs are generally viewed as less than desirable. Such tests have been shown to be highly reliably; more reliable in fact than most traditional measures used by psychologists. The validity of such measures, however, has been questioned. The issue of drug test validity will be discussed later in this review. The use of drug screening procedures is not limited to job applicants; and it is not uncommon for organizations to regularly test their current employees for the use of illegal substances. Much of the rese...

... middle of paper ...

Muchinsky, P.M. (1997). Psychology Applied to Work (5th ed.) Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.


Normand, J., Salyards, S.D. & Mahoney, J.J. (1990).An Evaluation of Preemployment Drug Testing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 629-639.


Sheppard, B.H., Lewicki, R.J. & Minton, J.W. (1992). Organizational Justice: The Search for Fairness in the Workplace. New York: Lexington Books.


Stone, D.L & Kotch, D.A. (1989). Individuals' Attitudes Toward Organizational Drug Testing Policies and Practices. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 518-521.


Susser, P.A. (1985). Legal Issues Raised by Drugs in the Workplace. Labor Law Journal, 36, 42-54.


Tepper, B.J. (1994). Investigation of General and Program specific Attitudes Toward Corporate Drug Testing Policies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 392-401.


Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Clustering in Financial Services: A Literrature Review Essay

- The theory of cluster has became one of theory that considered important in the regional economic development theoryin the recent worlds. It suggest that the co-ocation or geographic proximity results for firms that do clustering will be crucial to increase the economics scope of the firms, mainly due to lower input cost that are resulted from agglomeration economies and facilitates knowledge spillovers which can increase the firms’ productivity (Wolman and Hincapie, 2010, p1). Therefore, this can creates more competitive firms that do the clustering, and also produce significant growth for the firms....   [tags: markusen, clustering, financial services]

Powerful Essays
2165 words (6.2 pages)

The Effect of Recent Financial Crisis and Regulatory Implications in Asia

- Abstract The essay is a critique about the effect of financial crisis in Asia and its implications on macroeconomic perspective. The first theme of financial crisis is about financial regulation and supervision. The main issues in this concept are related to impact of crisis in East Asia. The down turn in Asia was larger than expected in the history of Asia and this resulted to various implications on individual and institutional level. Another area of concern is the implication of the recent financial crisis in the banking sector and stock market....   [tags: Economics ]

Powerful Essays
1192 words (3.4 pages)

Journal Article Review on Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Performance by Richard C. Thelwell

- Review of Journal Article: Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Soccer Performance Richard C. Thelwell , Iain A. Greenlees & Neil J. V. Weston (2006) Using Psychological Skills Training to Develop Soccer Performance, Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,18:3, 254-270 Improving the performances of athletes has always been of utmost importance to many stakeholders of the sporting industry, such as the athletes’ coaches, sport psychologists, sports scientists. Many factors during a competition can affect athletes physically and mentally and these can negatively affect their performance abilities....   [tags: performance, profiling, psychological]

Powerful Essays
1953 words (5.6 pages)

Team Performance: Improve Patient Safety and Quality Essay

- Outline I. Background II. Literature Review III. Nursing Implications IV. Strategies to Address Issue V. Conclusion Background A culture of safety requires the commitment of leadership to positively impact outcomes. Recent emphasis on the new CMS guidelines and third party reimbursement initiatives associated with patient outcomes, has grabbed the attention of leadership at all healthcare organizations. Additionally, our system wide organization’s employee culture of safety survey has shown that communication and teamwork are areas were improvements are needed....   [tags: Literature Review, Nursing Implications]

Powerful Essays
2307 words (6.6 pages)

Psychological Approach in Analyzing the Implication of Violent Cartoons

- In the past 80 years, children were usually entertained by animated films and television shows. Started in early 1920, Felix the Cat was the first cartoon icon. Followed by the characters of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck and Pluto that were introduced by the Disney Brother's Cartoon Studios in the late 1930's (Hassen and Daniyal,2013). In line with this, it has been proven that cartoon shows have been part of the lives of almost every children. On the other hand, many theories have been noted about the history of the most watched cartoon shows by children....   [tags: tv shows, cartoons, children behavior]

Powerful Essays
904 words (2.6 pages)

The Effect of Recent Financial Crisis and Regulatory Implications in Asia

- others because they have lesser buffers and even if they have, they are inadequate. It is after all the poor that engage in informal sectors and are usually the unskilled labors. It is also the poor that are experiencing unemployment more than the others due to lack of education. Now on the larger scale is the impact on the institutional level of the global financial crisis. The financial crisis began in United States in 2007 and spread to other countries. The crisis was triggered by a liquidity shortfall in United States banking system and resulted to the collapse of financial institutions....   [tags: Economics ]

Powerful Essays
1529 words (4.4 pages)

Financial Data Management Essay

- Sahira has received employee complaints about the lengthy time it takes for her team to create financial reports. Her team explains that the computers are the problem and that the software programs are too difficult to use and that many hours of manual manipulation of data are required to complete monthly reports (Colorado State University-Global Campus, 2014, p. 6, ¶3). The management dilemma can be described as: Delays in financial reporting. (Appendix, Worksheet box 1). Upon further examination, the specific management question to be addressed is: Can financial data management be made more efficient....   [tags: financial reporting, transaction cycle]

Powerful Essays
873 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Irrational Exuberance and Financial Bubbles

- Legends of the Mississippi and South Sea Bubbles have endured today as warnings against the fatality of irrational exuberance in financial markets. However, as details of these first financial crises are somewhat exaggerated, it has proven difficult for historians to separate fact from myth. The question remains as to whether investors behaved irrationally or sensibly in response to these events in the early eighteenth century. It appears that a lack of investor sophistication and the adverse effects of herding are partly to blame for the unsustainable prices increases....   [tags: Financial markets, Financial Crisis]

Powerful Essays
2431 words (6.9 pages)

Financial Statements Essay

- Financial Statements basically show the historical performance or record of the company at some previous point of time. By the time when financial statements are made public, changes are many economical areas such as market conditions, currency exchange rate and inflations can change the values of assets and liabilities. In this case there often exist discrepancies between book value of assets and their market values. In above case there might be companies that are healthy and many go through period of financial distress....   [tags: Economy, Financial Distress]

Powerful Essays
2290 words (6.5 pages)

Psychological Stress Essay

- Psychological stress is a result of many factors and should be dealt with very carefully. Stress can be defined as “An excess of demand made upon the adaptive capabilities of the mind and body”.(Joseph 1). Another way of putting it, is that there are some things that put certain demands on us. The effects of stress should not be limited to unpleasant emotional states. Many studies have concluded that the effects on our physical health from stress can be extremely detrimental. These adverse physical effects include heart disease and formations of cancer....   [tags: Health Impact Psychological Stress]

Powerful Essays
1812 words (5.2 pages)