Infertility affects an estimated 6.1 million people in the United States, or 10% of the reproductive age population (1). For many couples, infertility carries a stigma with serious personal and social ramifications. Infertile couples face social rejection by friends and family with children and must also come to terms with the loss of lifelong dreams of rearing children. The psychological trauma associated with infertility has created a great demand for a solution, and the medical industry has responded with eagerness. Infertile couples spend millions of dollars on medical treatments, including in vitro fertilization, surrogate pregnancy, egg donation and a myriad of infertility drugs now on the market. Because of the extreme emotional suffering many infertile couples experience, these couples are particularly susceptible to exploitation by people - or an entire industry - purporting to have a solution for their problem. It is therefore important to question the ethics associated with reproductive technologies that try to provide "solutions" for infertile couples. While all of the treatments for infertility lead to ethical dilemmas, I will focus on the dilemma of surrogate pregnancy. Although surrogacy offers a possible solution to desperate infertile couples, the rate of success is low and the price tag is very high. Of even more concern are the costs not reflected in the monetary price. These costs include the possible exploitation of the couple and/or the potential surrogate, as well as the legal quandaries, both at the time of the contract and in the future, to which this "solution" gives birth.
Before tackling the problems of surrogacy,...
... middle of paper ...
1. American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility. http://www.asrm.com/Patients/faqs.html (September 17, 2001).
2. Sweet, Craig R. Surrogacy: Practical Medical Aspects. The American Surrogacy Center, Inc. (TASC), Marietta, GA. http://www.surrogacy.com/medres/article/aspects.html (September 17, 2001).
3. Shanley, Mary Lyndon. 1995. "Surrogate Mothering" and Women's Freedom: A Critique of Contracts for Human Reproduction. In: Elshtain, Jean Bethke and J. Timothy Cloyd, Politics and the Human Body: Assault on Diginity. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
4. Frost-Knappman, Elizabeth and Kathryn Cullen-DuPont (Eds.). 1996. Women's Rights on Trial. "In the Matter of Baby M." Gale Group.
Cohen, Cynthia (ed.) 1996. New Ways of Making Babies. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The Surrogate Mother - Womb For Rent In 2000 the United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) defined reproductive rights as "the basic rights of couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing and timing of their children; to have the information and means to do so; and to have the right to make decisions concerning reproduction, free of discrimination, coercion or violence." Traditionally society defines reproductive rights in the context of one's being able to make decisions about his or her own reproduction; other individuals, unrelated to that person, were not considered as being involved in the decision.... [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
1489 words (4.3 pages)
- ... Allowing Indian women to provide for the education of their children empowers them and promotes gender equality. Significantly higher income through commercial surrogacy allows them to contribute to the family in a way that is generally inaccessible to them otherwise. Doctor Nayna Patel asserts that, "with the money, [surrogate mothers] are able to buy a house, educate their children and even start a small business. These are things they could only dream of before. It's a win-win situation” (Bhalla, Mansi).... [tags: mothers, pregnancy, moral]
735 words (2.1 pages)
- Surrogate Mothers in Jane Austen Jane Austen created families of varying levels of dysfunction so effectively, that even young readers of today can relate to the story. In some, the mother was either deceased, not present, or just not the right person for the daughter to rely on. For example, Fanny, Emma, Elizabeth and Elinor all struggle because the very people who are supposed to be looking out for them prove to be completely unhelpful. These heroines may not be able to rely on their actual Mother (or Father) but there often are parental figures that they can turn to.... [tags: Mother Mothers Jane Austen Essays]
2118 words (6.1 pages)
- “Time to Ban Surrogate Motherhood,” written by Lynda Hurst and “Surrogate Motherhood: Why it Should Be Permitted,” written by Allan C. Hutchinson, are persuasive texts where the authors’ attempts to influence the audience to agree with their side of the argument on surrogate motherhood. According to The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, surrogate motherhood is defined as, “a woman who bears a child for another person, often for pay, either through artificial insemination or by carrying until birth another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg.” Since the persuasive works are published in different newspapers, one being The Toronto Star and the other being The Glob... [tags: Surrogate Motherhood, ]
1324 words (3.8 pages)
- According to the National Health Statistics Reports published in 2013, 11% of women age 15-44 reported impaired fecundity while 12% of men aged 25-44 reported some form of infertility. Until new scientific intervention guarantees a cure for both male and female fertility troubles, couples will continue to rely on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and surrogates as viable avenues to establish families and bear biological children. Theoretically, an individual or a couple who solicit the services of a surrogate and the woman who consents to the arrangement of serving as the surrogate both benefit; the employing party is not barred from parenthood due to infertility and the surrogate will... [tags: bioethics, infertility]
1053 words (3 pages)
- A Surrogate Mother is defined as “an adult woman who enters into an agreement to bear a child conceived through assisted conception for intended parents.” The couple is usually referred to as intended parents who enter into an agreement providing that they will be the parents of a child born to a surrogate through assisted conception, using an egg or sperm of at least one parent. 1 RIGHT - Surrogate motherhood is a right entitled to those who are ready and able to take on the responsibility of parenthood.... [tags: essays research papers]
1132 words (3.2 pages)
- Surrogate Mothers The practice of bearing a child on behalf of another woman. This is surrogate motherhood. Is it considered immoral. By some, yes. In some countries it is banned—and in others it is promoted or up for consideration. In recent days, the issue of "right and wrong" has surfaced in the midst of this argument, sharing different meanings to the opposing sides. To some, it is right only for the woman who brings forth life to raise the child; for it is deemed that she is the only one fit to be the child's mother.... [tags: essays research papers]
755 words (2.2 pages)
- Surrogate Motherhood is when one women carries to term the fertilized egg of another woman. This procedure is chosen by married couples who can not conceive a child in the “natural way”. In some occasions the mother may be able to produce an egg, but has no womb or some other physical problem which prevents her from carrying a child. Whether or not the husband can produce a large amount of sperm is not a problem. Once the egg and sperm are combined in a petri dish fertilization is very likely to occur.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
997 words (2.8 pages)
- A surrogate is a woman who gestates a fetus for others, often times it is for another couple or a mother. She carries the pregnancy and let them adopt the baby legally after it is born. Surrogate arrangements are generally complex: it takes different arrangements and contacts in order to start the surrogacy. Some women are getting paid to fulfill the job of being a surrogate mother, ranging from $10,000 to $30,000 (p. 398), while others do not expect any kind of payment. Some states had outlawed surrogacy, for they believe that it is illegal to involve the buying and selling of children (baby-selling) for it is a “blatant affront to human dignity” (p.... [tags: mother, carries pregnancy for others]
1440 words (4.1 pages)
- There are many women who are not able to carry children or birth them. The good thing about this that there are other women that can carry them babies for them until birth. This is a relationship in which one woman bears and gives birth to a child for a person or a couple who then adopts or takes legal custody of the children; also called mothering by proxy. In surrogate motherhood, one woman acts as a surrogate, or replacement, mother for another woman, sometimes called the intended mother, who either cannot produce fertile eggs or cannot carry a pregnancy through to birth, or term.... [tags: babies, relationship, birth]
1165 words (3.3 pages)