HIV and Its Coreceptors Outline Essay

HIV and Its Coreceptors Outline Essay

Length: 3927 words (11.2 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

What is HIV?

The Human Immune System

* In order to understand HIV, one must understand the human immune system. The first line of defense is a person’s skin, mucous membranes, and other secretions which prevent pathogens from ever entering your body. Pathogens are considered things your body does not want, for example bacteria and viruses.
* The second line of defense includes nonspecific mechanisms which attempt to contain the spread of pathogens throughout one’s body. The second line of defense relies heavily on the use of white blood cells, which ingest invading organisms. About 5% of white blood cells are made of monocytes, which develop into macrophages. The role of these macrophages is vital to the human immune system, as they are able to engulf pathogens without having to self destruct.
* The body’s third line of defense is a highly specific means of distinguishing “self” from “non-self” and destroying all “non-self”. All of one person’s cells are marked with a unique set of proteins which label them as “self”. Certain cells in the body are capable of recognizing every antigen (molecules belonging to viruses/bacteria) that may enter one’s body over a lifetime. These cells include macrophages, T-Cells, B Cells, and interior thymus cells. These cells rely on Helper T-Cells to alert them of antigens in the body, thus creating an immune response. Once recognized, Killer T-Cells actively destroy pathogens and even the body’s own cells if that have been invaded by a pathogen.

How HIV attacks the Body

* As commonly known, HIV cannot penetrate your immune systems first line of defense. You cannot contract HIV by breathing bad air or by holding the hand of somebody who is HIV positive. You have to wo...

... middle of paper ...

... lymphocytes. Phipps and Branch observed Fyn Kinase activity in patients with and without HIV. Those with HIV contained high Fyn Kinase activity and low levels of Fyn protein. They also found that Fyn Kinase activity increases within 30 minutes of infection of the CD4+ T cells. This new-found information revolutionized the way testing for HIV occurs.

Alkhatib, G. et al, "CC CKR5: A RANTES, MIP-alpha, MIP-1 beta Receptor as a Fusion Cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1." Science 272, 1955 (1996).

Grimes, W., R. Hallick, M. Hewlett, J. Aronson, and B. Fishel. Biology 181 Laboratory Manual 2002. Hayden-McNeil Publishing, Inc.

Moore, J.P. "Co-receptors: Implications for HIV Pathogenesis and Therapy." Science 276, 51, 1997.

Purves, W., D. Sadava, G. Orians, and H. Heller. Life: The Science of Biology , Sixth Edition 2001. Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

The Current Rate Of Hiv / Aids Essay

- The current rate of HIV/AIDS in Botswana clearly shows that the current government has failed to implement successful solutions in regards to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These failures have led to the death of 3,200 people, in 2015. (AVERT 2016). Government HIV/AIDS policy in Botswana started out great. When the first cases of HIV/AIDS started to rise in 1987, the country took great measures to enact policy that would eradicate the problem. Botswana put in place a one-year national emergency plan that was first enacted in 1987....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, South Africa, Africa]

Powerful Essays
1734 words (5 pages)

Essay about The Treatment Of Hiv And Aids

- The treatment of HIV and AIDS For my final paper I chose to write about the treatment of HIV and AIDS. At first I will explain what HIV and AIDS are, what they can do to your body and how to get infected. After that I will outline what the pros and the cons of HIV and AIDS treatments are. HIV, also known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a virus that attacks the body’s immune system. If left untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells in the body, which makes a person more likely to get infections or infection-related cancers....   [tags: AIDS, Immune system, HIV, Blood]

Powerful Essays
712 words (2 pages)

Hiv And Public Health Issues Essay

- HIV and Public Health Public health involves a number of factors; it is a science that aims to improve and educate the public in many aspects regarding health. A public health issue that can affect anyone anywhere is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Public Health and HIV is a topic widely researched. Since there is no cure for such a disease, it is important to research and study this virus in hopes of bettering the outcomes for those inflicted with it. Ultimately, HIV can be prevented which is why it is necessary to raise awareness¬ to the public about the disease....   [tags: HIV, AIDS, Africa, Antiretroviral drug]

Powerful Essays
2043 words (5.8 pages)

Essay on Hiv And Aids : A Serious Infection

- HIV and AIDS are very serious infection that every human being can get. HIV/AIDS is something a STD that a person can get but will never be able to get rid of it. Scientists believe that HIV was originally transmitted to humans from a specific type of chimpanzee. When humans hunted these chimpanzees for food they then came into contact with their blood, causing the humans to get the virus. HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that mainly focuses on attacking the T cells, which helps the immune system fight off infections....   [tags: HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Antiretroviral drug]

Powerful Essays
1118 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Hiv / Aids Problem And Pepfar

- The HIV/AIDS Problem and PEPFAR HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus, simply put, attacks the immune system. One contracts the virus by coming into contact with contaminated fluids (through intercourse, sharing needles, etc.). The virus, when left untreated, leads to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) in ten to fifteen years. The human body cannot get rid of HIV like most viruses, and there is currently no cure. When HIV leads into AIDS, the human body becomes highly susceptible to diseases, and the average lifespan once someone acquires AIDS is three years....   [tags: AIDS, HIV, Immune system, Antiretroviral drug]

Powerful Essays
867 words (2.5 pages)

HIV Essay

- HIV People who inherit only one copy of a mutated gene that has an effect on HIV's ability to enter CD4 T-helper cells appear to be substantially less likely to become infected with the virus, according to a new report by researchers at New York University School of Medicine in New York City and collaborators at other institutions. Such a protective effect, if proven, falls far short of completely safeguarding individuals who carry a single copy of the gene mutation from the risk of HIV infection....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Free Essays
420 words (1.2 pages)

Essay on HIV and AIDS

- HIV and AIDS The AIDS and HIV virus is a very dangerous disease that sees no race, no color, no gender, no economic background and not even a specific age group. It can affect anyone, at any time if they put themselves in a situation where they could be at risk. AIDS stands for what is called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The virus causes the body's immune system to break down and become useless in fighting illness and bacteria. Even a common cold could lead to the death of a person affected with the AIDS virus....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Free Essays
692 words (2 pages)

HIV Essay

- HIV Like the majority of the American population I have lived in a cloud of ignorance about the HIV and AIDS crisis. I have never know anyone close to me that has been infected with either of the two viruses. So when the option to research something to do with sexuality arouse I felt this would definitely further my education about a lethal killer that is roaming this earth. Since I knew next to nothing about this topic I will start from the begging of the disease and discuss where it's at now....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Powerful Essays
1857 words (5.3 pages)

HIV Essay

- HIV Many eyebrows raised late in 1979, when the then unkown HIV virus raised its ugly head. The first two cases of the rare cancer, Karposis Sarcoma was diagnosed in two homosexual men in N>Y>C. About the same time in Los Angeles, several cases of the rare infection, Pneumocytis cariini pneumonia were being treated. Incidences of these strange diseases and infections were sky-rocketting around the country. The disease was effecting mostly young gay men in their 30's. There was no official name for the syndrome, but it was referred to by various names, GRID (gay related inmmune disease), Gay Cancer, and, "Community Acquired Syndrome"....   [tags: STD, HIV, AIDS]

Free Essays
1024 words (2.9 pages)


- HIV/AIDS No one can be certain about how or when the AIDS virus emerged. The closest related disease would be a simian immunodeficiency virus. This is where the suggestion arose that this disease was first contracted from a primate. It has also been thought that this once primate-only disease had evolved and somehow became transmitted to people. On June 5, 1981, the first report of AIDS hit the United States. The people weren't quite sure of what they were dealing with, so mistakenly, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released an article concerning a strange outbreak of pneumonia within the male homosexual community....   [tags: HIV and AIDS]

Free Essays
874 words (2.5 pages)