The Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Psychology Essay

The Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Psychology Essay

Length: 1176 words (3.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The Behaviorist and Cognitive Approaches to Psychology

In this essay I am going to explore two of the major approaches to
Psychology, Cognitive theories and Behaviorist theories. I will
discuss in some detail the two approaches, state how they compare and
illustrate the similarities and the differences between them.

John Watson, one of the founders of Behaviorism, based his theories
on the principles of learning outlined by Pavlov who suggested the
theory known as Classical Conditioning; he trained dogs to salivate
whenever he rang a bell. Dogs have a natural reflex response to
salivate when they see food, Pavlov rang a bell when the dogs were
given food and after several repetitions of this action, the dogs
began to salivate whenever they heard the bell, even when there was
not any food there. This approach rejected the idea of the conscious
mind. Albert Ellis & Aaron T Beck developed the present form of the
Cognitive approach to psychology in the 1950’s. This development
emerged from a growing dissatisfaction with the narrowness of the
behaviorist approach as it neglects complex human activities such as
planning and communication.

Behaviorists emphasize the relationship between the environment
surrounding a person and how it affects a person’s behavior. This
approach has a tendency to ignore mental processes. Behaviorists
believe that studying the brain is not ultimately the best or most
effective way to understand behavior. A person might act oddly in one
particular environment, but normal in others. Whilst cognitive
psychologists agree with the behaviorist theory that the environment
surrounding a person does have some inf...


... middle of paper ...


...hey may be thinking or feeling, if focuses on what
you can see not the emotions. It is difficult to measure the thinking
or feeling of independence and the behaviour of others, as well as the
expectations of others in any particular given situation, for example
John Watson believed that given the right environment anybody could be
made into anything.



Sources of Information
======================

Psychology – A New Introduction by Richard Gross, Rob McIlveen, Hugh
Coolicun, Alan Clamp and Julia Russell (Twelfth Edition)

Hilgards Introduction to Psychology by Rita L Atkinson, Richard C
Atkison, Edward G Smith, Daryl J Bern and Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
(Second Edition)

Basic Psychology by Henry Gleitman (First Edition)

www.sntp.net/behaviourism.thml

http://scs.une.edu.au/Materials/573/573_4.html

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Cognitive Psychology Essay

- Cognitive psychology began around 19th century. Different approaches have been used to trace the roots of psychology. It is also known that cognitive psychology was out numbered by behaviorism but later revived, bringing into being cognitive revolution. The paper discusses cognitive revolution in the history of cognitive psychology as the most influential part in the practice of modern psychology. Introduction A scientific branch of psychology that is concerned with the study of cognition is referred to as cognitive psychology....   [tags: Psychology]

Strong Essays
1064 words (3 pages)

Essay Psychoanalysis And Behaviorism Schools Of Psychology

- Psychoanalysis/Behaviorism schools of psychology Psychoanalysis is a school of research and practice in psychology that was proposed by Sigmund Freud between the years 1856 and 1939. Specifically, Sigmund argued that patients can be cured by evoking consciousness in unconscious thoughts. As such, this field aims at determining repressed emotions in patients with depression and anxiety disorders. On the other hand, Behaviorism attracted a main stream attention between 1920 and 1950. Particularly, behaviorist approach notes that a person’s behavior is directly linked to their environment....   [tags: Psychology, Mind, Behaviorism, Unconscious mind]

Strong Essays
837 words (2.4 pages)

The Biological Perspective Of Psychology Essay

- The brain has been studied for hundreds of years. Many great psychologist have questioned why we have thoughts and feelings and they all had different answers. Some thought you should only look at what can be directly observed about a person, some focused on their mental behavior, and some said that our culture shapes us to act a certain way. None of them are wrong about how we should look at the mind, we need to look at the mind in all these way to truly understand it. There are 6 main perspectives in psychology that help us understand the mind....   [tags: Psychology, Mind, Thought, Behaviorism]

Strong Essays
841 words (2.4 pages)

Major Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology Essay

- Major Theoretical Perspectives in Psychology INTRODUCTION In this assignment I will be describing the five major schools of psychological research. These are Behaviorism, Biological, Cognitive, Humanist and Psychoanalytical. I will then attempt to evaluate the pros, cons and practical applications of the Behaviorist and Psychodynamic approaches. BEHAVIORISM The earliest origins of behaviorism can be stemmed from the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704). He believed that the human being is born as a 'tabula rasa'....   [tags: Psychology Papers]

Strong Essays
2417 words (6.9 pages)

Essay on Cognitive Psychology : Psychology And Psychology

- “Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and thinking.” The processes of cognitive psychology also utilize the aspects of other psychological disciplines including: educational, social, personality, abnormal, developmental, and economic psychology. A cognitive psychologist’s main objective is to assess a person’s mental ability. My primary interest in researching this particular field in psychology is due to the fact that I am interested in the brain and how the brain causes us to become who we are....   [tags: Psychology, Cognitive psychology, Cognition]

Strong Essays
1015 words (2.9 pages)

Theoretical Approaches Of Psychology, Psychodynamic, Humanistic, Cognitive And Behavioral

- The aim of this essay is to analyse four theoretical approaches to psychology, including psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and behavioural. Analysing each approach in detail and identifying key features the approach uses to explain human behaviour. This essay will also analyse how successful each approach is in it methods, evidence gathering techniques and analyse how it can be applied to giving reasons for particular human behaviours. As well as analysing each approaches failings in it theories, methods and evidence gathering techniques....   [tags: Psychology, Mind, Unconscious mind]

Strong Essays
1931 words (5.5 pages)

Essay on Psychology : Three Different Approaches

- Experimental Psychology: Three Different Approaches Experimental psychology is a branch of psychology that scientifically investigates psychological processes in humans that result in behavior. There are a variety of different ways to approach a psychological hypothesis. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, and most focus on only one aspect of psychology. All approaches have the same goal; they aspire to increase knowledge about human behavior. A few relevant approaches are physiological, cognitive, and social....   [tags: Psychology, Cognitive science, Cognition]

Strong Essays
731 words (2.1 pages)

A Biographical Data Of Theorist Essay

-   1. Biographical data of theorist: Notable theorists in behavior therapy include: Pavlov, Skinner, Wolpe, and Bandura. • Pavlov influential events: studying theology, studying physiology in dogs, and experiencing the Russian Revolution. • Wolpe influential events: Serving as a doctor in the South African army during World War II. During the war he worked with soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder. This influenced his theory of systematic desensitization. • B.F. Skinner influential events: Skinner wanted to become a writer before studying psychology, Skinner was hired to train pigeons during World War II as bomb guides....   [tags: Psychology, Behaviorism]

Strong Essays
1044 words (3 pages)

The Field Of Cognitive Psychology Essay

- Edward C. Tolman shaped the field of cognitive psychology by presenting a theory of the cognitive map. The cognitive map is an organism’s mental picture of a specific area. Therefore, the cognitive map aids in memorization of one’s environment. The cognitive map can be broken down into how a person’s spatial memory records the location of their surroundings. Hence, a cognitive map is not a physical place, but rather how an organism perceives their environment. Tolman discovered a way to intertwine observing a behavior with setting a definitive objective....   [tags: Psychology, Behaviorism, Edward C. Tolman]

Strong Essays
1079 words (3.1 pages)

The Behaviorist, Psychodynamic and Humanistic Contributions to Psychology

- This essay will in turn look at the behaviorist, Psychodynamic, and Humanistic approaches to Psychology. It will evaluate the assumptions and contributions for each approach. Behaviorists emphasize the relationship between the environment surrounding a person and how it affects a person’s behavior. They are primarily concerned with observable behavior, as opposed to internal events like thinking and emotion. This is a criticism of the behaviorist approach; it is seen as mechanistic and oversimplified, because it ignores mental processes or reinterprets them as just types of behavior....   [tags: Psychology]

Strong Essays
1889 words (5.4 pages)