Outline the key features of the psychoanalytic and humanistic
perspectives, and briefly compare and contrast their views on
conscious experience, a person as an integrated whole, and the role of
therapists in arriving at changes.
In explaining and predicting animal behaviour, different schools of
psychology are of different perspectives; e.g. cognitive approach
focuses on the mental processes, behaviourism is based on external
stimuli and reinforcement, biological approach is concerned with the
relationship between the mind and body and the influence of heredity.
However, they are only cope with a specific part of people, but
neglect human as a whole. To supplement such deficient, both
psychoanalytic and humanistic psychologies have provided their
perspectives on it.
Psychoanalytic approach was advocated by Sigmund Freud, a private
practitioner who construct his theory through therapy and
self-experience. In his theory, there are three major ideas; they are
consciousness, psychosexual stages of development and psychodynamics
Freud split the consciousness into three levels; they are conscious,
preconscious and unconscious respectively. The conscious level
contains information of which we are aware, alert and awake at the
moment, e.g. you can easily answer the question of “What is your
name?”. The preconscious level contains the memories and thoughts
that are easily remember through a little effort, e.g. in respond to a
question of “Where are you last night?”. The unconsciou...
... middle of paper ...
...ents are equal and fair. They only encourage
their clients to express their feelings and believe that they could
solve their problems by themselves.
Even though the psychoanalytic approach was criticized as unobservable
and the humanism is over emphasis the ability of individual, but
neglect the external factors, e.g. environmental and cultural
influences; they indeed made contributions to help people to tackle
their psychic/psychological problems.
The Open University of HK (OUHK) (2003).
SS101. Hong Kong : OUHK
Miell, D., Phoenix, A., and Thomas, K. (2002).
Mapping Psychology 2. Milton Keynes : The Open University Press
Davis, S.F. and Palladino, J.J. (1995)
Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall
Website : http://www.webref.org
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- What are the core assumptions and key features of the biological and psychoanalytic perspectives in psychology. In what ways are they similar and how do they differ. Introduction In Psychology, various different explanations of behaviour and the intellect have been presented and debated over the years such as the psychodynamic, behavioral, biological and humanistic approach. The biological approach aims to provide explanation is concerned with how behaviour is affected by physiological systems and mechanisms (Barnes, 2013).... [tags: Psychology, Sigmund Freud, Genetics, Mind]
1676 words (4.8 pages)
- The biological and psychoanalytic perspectives focus on different theories as to how behaviour is presented. It is important to note that there are many historical foundations with diverse origins. Psychologists studying biology believe the body is a machine and the brain controls this machine (Descartes, 1637). Therefore, it is believed the mind is separate from the body (Descartes, 1637) which is a rather materialistic viewpoint. Conversely, the psychoanalytical perspective believe the key principle that we have instinctual basic drives of food and sex and these feelings are due to our childhood experiences (Freud, 1909).... [tags: Brain, Psychology, Sigmund Freud]
1738 words (5 pages)
- The Potency of Humanistic Therapy With the ever growing expansion of the modern culture that our American society has wrapped our time and hearts around, we have lost some of the most basic and fulfilling concepts about what it means to be human, and how we can live our lives to the highest potential. In some ways, this is due in part to the fact that we have created an environment for ourselves that is significantly different from the one in which we evolved. Currently in modern society, certain elements of our culture have been exaggerated and others diminished, in order to emphasize qualities that are attractive to the modern individual at this specific moment in time.... [tags: humanistic psychology, modern culture]
1848 words (5.3 pages)
- The psychoanalytic perspective grew out of subsequent psychoanalytic theories (1901, 1924, and 1940) following decades of interactions with clients with the use of an innovative procedure developed by Sigmund Freud that required lengthy verbal interactions with patients during which Freud probed deep into their lives. In a nutshell, the psychoanalytic perspective looked to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focussing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges.... [tags: Psychology]
1625 words (4.6 pages)
Psychology : Humanistic Psychology And Its Interactions Between Psychoanalytical And Behavioristic Psychologist
- The history of psychology dates back to the times of the ancient Greeks, and Chinese philosophers 4,000 years ago. During this time span numerous thinkers had strived to answer the riddle of the human mind. This paper will focus on the development of Humanistic Psychology primarily from the 1950’s to the present day. Humanistic Psychology had played an important role in the shaping of todays clinical applications for mental health. Also known as the Third Force, humanistic approach had offered a unique explanation for describing and assessing human behavior, which ran contrary to both behaviorism and psychodynamic theory that was popular at the time.... [tags: Psychology, Humanistic psychology, Thought]
2885 words (8.2 pages)
- Historical Context The historical context of humanistic originated in the Middle Ages where the philosophy if human is was developed. Achievement of self-realization was a choice for individuals through rational thought and reasoning was considered the belief of philosophy. This movement initiated in the 15th century in Europe with individuals that lacked an opened mind which were religious dogma scholars of the church and philosophers (Schultz & Schultz, 2011). In the mid-1950s modern humanistic psychology emerged, due to the response of psychoanalysis and behaviorism.... [tags: Psychology, Humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow]
1254 words (3.6 pages)
- Looking into the field of personality psychology from a theoretical standpoint, no two perspectives are the same. From the many different perspectives, I chose to research the Behaviorist, Psychoanalyst and Humanistic perspectives on how personality predicts behavior. The Behaviorists focused on social learning theory (SLT), where differences in learning experiences resulted in differences in behavior. (Meams, 2015) B.F Skinner’s SLT idea of reward/punishment along with reinforcement produced the concept that having positive personality traits resulted in positive reinforcement of good behavior.... [tags: Sigmund Freud, Psychology]
720 words (2.1 pages)
- Mental disorders are dismissed by people today because they are internal. When a person has a cold they cough, when a person has sunburn they turn red or peel, but when a person has a mental disorder they… and that’s where the debate begins. Do mental disorders truly exist. What are the causes. As a result of mental disorders some people exhibit a change in behavior or do things outside of what is status quo. That leads me to my topic - the psychoanalytic approach vs. the humanistic approach.... [tags: essays research papers]
946 words (2.7 pages)
- The focus of this paper is the person-centered approach, which is the understanding of personality and human relationships in psychotherapy and counseling in the areas of client-centered therapy, education of student-centered learning, organizations, and other group settings. Even though psychoanalysis and behaviorism have made major contributions to psychology, it has influenced the understanding and practices of the humanistic movement, specifically with the therapies for the different mental disorders.... [tags: psychoanalysis, behaviorism, humanism]
1623 words (4.6 pages)
- Psychology as we all know is the scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals. The following paragraphs will compare and contrast Psychodynamic, Behavioral, and Humanistic perspectives of psychology. Each one of these perspectives searches for answers about behavior through different techniques and through looking for answers to different kinds of questions. Due to the different approaches, each perspective form their own assumptions and explanations. Some perspectives are widely accepted while others struggle for acceptance Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were the key people in developing the Humanistic Perspective, Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson were the key people in develo... [tags: Humanistic Psychology Human Behavior Essays]
438 words (1.3 pages)