During the 1800s it was a starting point for a sociological
perspective based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1813-83). They were ideas
of conflict and inequality in education, families and household.
In 1976 followers of the Marxist approach Bowles and Gintis conducted
a survey of the education system, which provided them with similar
information to that of Karl Marx. Then in 1977 Paul Willis provided a
critical analysis of that of Bowles and Gintis and conducted his own
survey as a Neo-Marxist of the education system (Learning to Labour).
Although both views were based on the sociological perspective of Karl
Marx there was a considerable difference.
Paul Willis research was carried out between 1972 and 1975 it took
three years. He travelled round following 12 working class boys deemed
“the ladz”. They represented everything that school didn’t they were
completely the opposite. They didn’t want individual promotion, no
qualifications, and no job that required training or job satisfaction.
The students who did everything that was expected of them were
labelled “ the earoles”.
Compared to Bowles and Gintis, Willies investigation was carried out
very differently. His study was a small-scale view; it was micro and
therefore was an interpretivist’s view of society rather than that of
Bowles and Gintis, which was a structuralist’s view of society. It was
macro. For example when studying the education system Bowles and
Gintis would look at education as a whole and study things like social
class and origin of background from this they would draw up a
... middle of paper ...
Gintis didn’t even step foot into a school. Whereas Willies did he
used an ethnographic approach to study students. He actually went into
the school and interacted with the students using an eclectic
approach, he used Marxist perspective to explain it all. Bowles and
Gintis also said that the students were passive and could be shaped by
the education system and could not shape their own reality. Willis
views is far more realistic and accurate, saying that they do have the
power to do there own thing and that Bowles and Gintis are far too
deterministic. Bowles and Gintis in general are claiming that all
cultural activity is geared up to class interest, they is why they are
structuralists. Whereas Willis didn’t look into social structure that
much so he didn’t neglect religious, patriarchal and ethnic interests.
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