Investigation of Transpiration Essay

Investigation of Transpiration Essay

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Investigation of Transpiration

Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant by evaporation. Water
is essential for plants as it is required for photosynthesis to
produce glucose; all organisms derive their energy from the oxidation
of glucose, minerals and ions are dissolved in water and bring them
from the roots to other plant tissue that require the minerals. Also,
water keeps the plant cool. The plant undergoes several processes in
order for it to lose the amount of water through the lower epidermis
of a leaf.

Firstly, soil, is a very dilute solution of ions, which means a lot of
water has been dissolved in to solution, and therefore the soil
solution has a very high water potential. On the other hand the root
hair cells have an insufficient amount of water molecules, resulting
in root cells having low water potential. Root cells have a partially
permeable membrane, which allows water to travel through them due to
osmosis, where water travels from high water potential to low water
potential. Root hair cells have a high surface area to volume ratio to
efficiently absorb water.

As water enters root hair cells, it has three routes for it travel
along symplastic pathway, apoplastic pathway and vacuolar pathway. In
the symplastic pathway water crosses the cellular membrane of root
hairs and enters the cytoplasm of the cell, it travels between
connecting cells through the plasmodesmata, this process occurs due to
diffusion of water molecules from high concentration to low
concentration. However the process is quite slow. Water travels though
intercellular spaces along cell walls in apoplastic pathway, it
travels thro...

... middle of paper ...

...umidity. Light stimulates the stomata to open/close
for gaseous exchange and as a result increases the rate of
transpiration. If the temperature is high, the rate of evaporation of
water in the leaf will increase, this will result in the plant needing
more water at a quicker rate, therefore transpiration increases. If
the humidity is high, this means there is a smaller difference of
water potential between the leaf and the air consequently there will
be less evaporation, decreasing the rate of transpiration.
Picture of xylem vessel
Image of different routes taken by water in root hair cells

The Hutchinson Encyclopedia Information on transpiration

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