The use of enzymes to modify foods has increased vastly and these
fermentations are continuing to be important, however, a new type of
enzyme industry has evolved which involves the use of harvesting
enzymes from microorganisms. The production of enzymes from bacteria
and fungi can be isolated from the growth media and cleansed and
purified as necessary. Generally in industrial processes the enzyme is
immobilised which allows t h enzyme to be re-used and also enable the
products to be separated easily. The production of textiles, paper,
leather fruit juices and biological detergents are produced from
Enzymes work by breaking down a substrate into simpler molecules. They
increase the rate at which a reaction occurs. They lower the
activation energy, which results in a quicker rate.
Once the substrate leaves the active site of the enzyme the enzyme is
free to combine with another free substrate molecule as long as it
will fit into the active site of the enzyme as each enzyme has a
specific active site which results in enzymes being specific in what
they break down.
The following equation represents the reaction occurring between an
enzyme and a substrate:
ENZYME + SUBSTRATE Ã ENZYME Â– SUBSTRATE complex Ã ENZYME + PRODUCTS
Proteases hydrolyse peptide bonds in peptides and proteins. They act
wither within the peptide chain or by removing amino acid residues in
sequence from one or other end of the chain. Proteases can also be
known as proteinases and pe...
... middle of paper ...
...otein stains when washing clothes. The proteases
present in biological powders include Savinase and Alcalase. They are
produce by microorganisms. Proteins help to remove stains like blood,
grass and various foods by breaking the proteins down present in these
substances. The products produced dissolve in the water.
Enzymes used commercially are often immobilised. This is when the
enzyme molecules are attached to an insoluble material however this
does not affect the enzymes activity. This is good as the products are
easy to separate from the enzyme so the enzyme can then be re-used
which also reduces costs.
Enzyme immobilisation is used a lot in the production of milk for
lactose intolerant people. Immobilised lactase hydrolyses the milk
sugar lactose to produce glucose and galactose.
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