The Processes by Which Genes and Environment Operate Together to Influence Development

The Processes by Which Genes and Environment Operate Together to Influence Development

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The Processes by Which Genes and Environment Operate Together to Influence Development
Psychologists have argued for centuries over which has played the
larger role in child development, heredity or environment. The British
philosopher John Locke (1632 –1704) proposed one of the first theories
in the seventeenth century. Locke believed that a child was born with
an empty mind, tabula rasa (meaning “blank slate”) and that everything
the child learns comes from experience, nothing is established
beforehand. Years later, Charles Darwin (1809 –82) brought forth
his theory of evolution, which argued that human behaviour is best
understood through knowledge of its origins – in both the evolution of
the species and the early development of individuals. His emphasis
was on the survival behaviour of different species and his interest
was in observing children to identify the various ways that they adapt
to things, and in learning about the inheritance of human behaviour,.
which led to a return of the hereditarianism viewpoint. With the
twentieth century, however, came the rise of behaviourism.
Behaviourists, like B.F. Skinner (19043 – 90), argued that a child
can agree that both nature (genes) and nurture (environment) play an
important role, not independently, but as they interact together to be
made into any kind of person, regardless of their heredity. My essay
will describe the way in which genes and environment operate together
to influence development with significance to the differing view of
the constructivist t...


... middle of paper ...


...( 1989) ‘Direct and indirect IQ
heritability estimates: a puzzle’, Behaviour Genetics, 19, pp. 331 –
42. cited in Ken Richardson ‘Interactions in Development’Chpt 6 p225 –
227.

John Bowlby (1959) John Oates ‘First Relationships, Chap 7, in Oates,
J (ed) The Foundation of Developent, Oxford Blackwell, The Open
University.

The British National Child

Developmnent Study Ken Richardson, (1994)
Interactions in Development Chapter 6 p 233, in Oates, J (ed) The
Foundation of Development, Oxford, Blackwell, The Open University

Web Sites

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761557692_6/Child_Development.html

http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Piaget.html

http://psychology.about.com/sitesearch.htm?terms=Vygotsky&SUName=psychology&TopNode=4911&Action.x=11&Action.y=6

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