From the amount of conversations we witness on a daily basis we can
see that they are governed by some sort of mechanism or rules. From
these observations, it becomes clear that turn taking is a major
constituent of conversation, with the arrangement of talk across two
participants. Levinson (1983: 296) explains that, despite the
‘obvious’ nature of turn taking (i.e. A speaks, then B speaks, then A
speaks again) the way in which distribution is achieved is “Anything
but obvious”. He states that “Less (and often considerably less) then
5 per cent of the speech stream is delivered in overlap, yet gaps
between one person speaking and another starting are frequently
measurable in just a few micro-seconds”. This phenomenon is of
interest to pragmaticians who, through the practise of conversational
analysis have studied conversation on the micro-pragmatic level and
have sought to theorise the mechanisms responsible.
In order to study the turn taking system operating in conversation I
transcribed three brief conversations from Big Brother 2 (Appendix).
Big Brother is a popular ‘reality T.V’ game show where contestants are
invited to live in a house for up to 8 weeks where they are constantly
monitored and filmed. The public evicts each week one contestant, with
the winner being the last contestant left. I decided to use
conversation from Big Brother for several reasons. Firstly, the
conversation was easily accessible and could be replayed repeatedly to
study the conversation in detail. Another advantage was that I was
able to see facial expressions and body language of the participants.
... middle of paper ...
system of turn taking in respect of Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson’s
theories (1974). I found their rules for the turn taking mechanism to
be relevant to the conversations I analysed with sufficient evidence
to support their rules. I also identified other points of interest
within the transcripts and attempted to account for these using the
theories of Mey (2001), Levinson (1983) and Tannen (1990).
Levinson, S.C. (1983) Pragmatics. Cambridge. CUP.
Mey. J (2001) Pragmatics: An introduction 2nd edition. Oxford.
Sacks, H. E.A. Schegloff and G. Jefferson (1974) A simplest
systematics for the organization of Turn taking for conversation.
Language 50; 696 – 735.
Tannen, D. (1990) You just don’t understand: men and women in
conversation. London: Virago
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Introduction A conversation necessarily requires multiple participants, and assuming all members have the right to speak, the act of turn-taking will take place. Schegloff and Sacks wrote that “two basic features of conversation are proposed to be: (1) at least, and no more than, one party speaks at a time in a single conversation; and (2) speaker change recurs” (1973:293), with the latter highlighting the ubiquity of turn-taking in spoken discourse. The first feature is rather idealistic, with overlaps frequent in everyday conversation, but it implies a sense of general cooperation, with participants typically allowing speakers to finish their turn before taking their own.... [tags: Conversation, Speaking, Communication]
1536 words (4.4 pages)
- The resolution of disputes through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms has gained momentum over recent decades. It has increasingly occupied space in the academic literature as the “new” method to achieve “justice” for disputing parties. It is important to note that a variety of definitions of “justice” can be relied upon. However, in many cases, justice will mean the parties being able to resolve their dispute fairly, justly and amicably by applying law or legal principles. Traditional legal mechanisms for resolving disputes have been increasingly questioned as to whether they are actually capable of achieving justice in individual cases.... [tags: justice, traditional legal mechanisms]
2690 words (7.7 pages)
- One of the most critically discussed works in twentieth-century American literature, The Turn of the Screw has inspired a variety of critical interpretations since its publication in 1898. Until 1934, the book was considered a traditional ghost story. Edmund Wilson, however, soon challenged that view with his assertions that The Turn of the Screw is a psychological study of the unstable governess whose visions of ghosts are merely delusions. Wilson’s essay initiated a critical debate concerning the interpretation of the novel, which continues even today (Poupard 313).... [tags: The Turn of the Screw Essays]
1116 words (3.2 pages)
- In the past, there have been several studies about eye-gaze patterns in turn-taking. One of these studies is that of Vertegaal et al (2001), which was to verify if eye gaze could predict to whom conversational partners are speaking or listening to in a multi-user environment. By multi-user environments the experimenters mean a conversation with three or more actors involved. In their introduction Vertegaal et al (2001) present several different predictions about the research. In their first hypothesis they argue that “significantly more time is spent gazing at the individual one listens or speaks to, than at others” (p.302).... [tags: multi-user environment, gaze ]
1058 words (3 pages)
- Something is amiss in Bly. The nameless Governess has always been a person of interest in literature. She has been analyzed time and time again from a trusting standpoint; taking everything she says at face value. Taken with no thought of deception and that ghosts are real and the Governess’ is attempting to protect Miles, not harm him. Also from a psychological or Freudian perspective indicating she was mentally disturbed and kills Miles. Whether the Governess was simply a confused youth, thrust into a position beyond her ability and is further saddled with the tasks of protecting her two charges with ghosts or a manipulative shrew who means nothing but harm to those around her because her... [tags: The Turn of the Screw]
1182 words (3.4 pages)
- A Conversation Overheard Laughing and crying. Like salt and pepper, peanut butter and jelly, they go together. Yeah, they do. Think about it. People laugh until they cry, some people laugh through their tears. And, after you finish either process, you usually feel better, am I right. Also, both laughing and crying are essential to survival in life. No one can successfully thrive and function without doing either of these things, laughing and crying. All that emotion kept inside, with no means of escape.... [tags: Dialogue Conversation Essays]
1390 words (4 pages)
- The Importance of Chapter Six in The Turn of the Screw Chapter Six is an important section of The Turn of the Screw, as it involves many of the themes of the story, as well as reflecting its general narrative structure. James' novel is phenomenally complex; it has an incredible ambiguity to it, which allows for some very outlandish and far-fetched ideas to be formulated. A 'theme' can almost be drawn from almost every other sentence, if one so desires. It is deciding which issues have a little more to them than there may seem at first and which are what they appear, nothing more, which is difficult.... [tags: Henry James Turn Screw Essays]
1443 words (4.1 pages)
- The Turn of the Screw This novel was, surprisingly, interesting. The intensely complex and intricate (if not confusing!) sentences, upon first thought, made me expect an experience of complete, utter, and total confusion; however, they served not only to keep my interest in the novel – for I had to concentrate to grasp the full, rich meaning of his thoughts – but also to create in me a sense of enjoyment, that of being enriched with the experiences of the main character so that my life and that character's became inseparable, only it occurred not only with the main character, but with the entire plot at once – all characters, all scenes (to which I shall come late), all conversations...... [tags: The Turn of the Screw Henry James]
717 words (2 pages)
- The Shifting Narratee in The Turn of the Screw In the essay "Introduction to the Study of the Narratee," Gerald Prince discusses the interpretative value of thinking about to whom a narrative is addressed. First, he establishes what a "zero-degree narratee" (or possessor of a minimum number of specific narratee characteristics identified by Prince) is and is not: A narratee is not the actual reader, the implied reader, or the ideal reader. The narratee is beholden to the narrator, because, "Without the assistance of the narrator, without his explanations and the information supplied by him, the narratee is able neither to interpret the value of an action or to grasp its repe... [tags: James Turn of the Screw Essays]
908 words (2.6 pages)
- At first glance, Bly appears to be a rather lonely place. The vividly bleak backdrop for The Turn of the Screw houses a handful of servants, two orphaned children, and ghosts who fade in and out of view. But there are others present who are less obtrusive yet just as influential as Peter Quint and Miss Jessel. Peering into and out of Bly's windows and mirrors, engaging with the text and the lingering trace of author Henry James, a crowd of real and virtual readers hope to catch a glimpse of a specter or to unravel a clever Freudian slipknot that will tell them something: They may be looking for that which they think James intended as the text's truth - a transcendental center... [tags: The Turn of The Screw]
2777 words (7.9 pages)