History of Judaism Essay

History of Judaism Essay

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History of Judaism

Circa 2000 BCE, the G-d of the ancient Israelites established a divine
covenant with Abraham, making him the patriarch of many nations. From
his name, the term Abramic Religions is derived; these are the three
religions which trace their roots back to Abraham: Judaism,
Christianity and Islam. The book of Genesis describes the events
surrounding the lives of the four patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob
and Joseph. Moses was the next leader. He led his people out of
captivity in Egypt, and received the Law from G-d. After decades of
wandering through wilderness, Joshua led the tribes into the promised
land, driving out the Canaanites through a series of military battles.

The original tribal organization was converted into a Kingdom by
Samuel; its first king was Saul. The second king, David, established
Jerusalem as the religious and political center. The third king,
Solomon built the first temple there.Division into the Northern
kingdom of Israel and the Southern kingdom of Judah occurred shortly
after the death of Solomon in 922 BCE. Israel fell to Assyria in 722
BCE; Judah fell to the Babylonians in 587 BCE. The temple was
destroyed. Some Jews returned from captivity under the Babylonians and
started to restore the temple in 536 BCE. Alexander the Great invaded
the area in 332 BCE. From circa 300 to 63 BCE, Greek became the
language of commerce, and Greek culture had a major influence on
Judaism. In 63 BCE, the Roman Empire took control of Palestine.

Three religious sects had formed by the 1st century AD: the Sadducees,
Pharisees and Essenes. Many anticipated the arrival of a Messiah who
would drive the Roman ...


... middle of paper ...


...on and led by a rabbi
who has been chosen by the congregation. The Chief Rabbis in France
and Great Britain have authority only by the agreement of those who
accept it. Two Chief Rabbis in Israel have civil authority in areas of
family law.

Orthodox* Judaism: This the oldest and most conservative form of
Judaism. They attempt to observe their religion as close to its
original forms as possible. They look upon every word in their sacred
texts as being divinely inspired.

Reconstructist Judaism: This is a new liberal movement started by
Mordecai Kaplan as an attempt to unify and revitalize the religion.
They reject the concept that Jews are a uniquely favored and chosen
people. They have no connection

Bibliography

· Saltyers noors books three and four

· Josha kops, never seen ever

· Class notes

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