Bloody Sunday was an incident of January 22, 1905 where unarmed
demonstrators marched to the Winter Palace present a petition to the
Czar. They were gunned down by Imperial guards in St. Petersburg.
The event was organized by Father Gapon, a paid agent provocateur of
the Okhranka, the Czarist internal secret police.
Father George Gapon founded the Assembly of Russian Factory and Plant
Workers, an authorized and police-sponsored organization designed to
deviate any unrest away from violent revolutionary activities. In
December1904, there was a strike at Putilov plant. By January 8, the
city had no electricity and no newspapers. All public areas were
declared closed. As fears rose at subsequent unrest Father Gapon
organized a peaceful procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a
petition to the Tsar that Sunday. Father Gapon being a provocateur
Troops had already been deployed around the Winter Palace and at other
key points around St. Petersburg. The Tsar had left the city on
January 8 for Tsarskoe Selo, the Tsar's village outside St.
On Sunday, striking workers and their families gathered at six
different positions around the city; they proceeded towards the Winter
Palace without police interference. The army pickets near the palace
first fired warning shots, and then fired directly into the crowds.
Gapon and his crowd were fired upon near the Narva Gate. Around forty
people surrounding him were killed, but he was uninjured, estimates
still average around 1,000 killed or wounded, both from shots and
trampled during the panic.
Gapon's Assembly was closed down that day, and he ...
... middle of paper ...
...ical socialists were at least partially satisfied. Only the radical
socialists, radical workers and hungry peasants continued the
The revolts of the national minorities were in the borderland areas.
They were too localized in nature. These revolts chiefly aimed at
obtaining local independence and not the overthrow of Tsardom.
The Tsar retained the support of the bureaucracy, the major part of
the army and the nobility. Thus the Tsar was able to suppress the
strikes and the revolts after the division had appeared among the
In short, the opposition forces, divided, unprepared to seize power,
unable to represent the wishes of the peasants and the workers, failed
to overthrow the decadent and demoralized dynasty which retained the
support of the nobles, the bureaucrats and the army.
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