An Account of Proteins and Their Structure Essay

An Account of Proteins and Their Structure Essay

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An Account of Proteins and Their Structure

It is difficult to describe in a simple sentence the role of proteins.
Let's say:

When there is something to do, it is a protein that does it.

Some examples of proteins

* Antibodies: they recognize molecules of invading organisms.

* Receptors: part of the cell membrane, they recognize other
proteins, or chemicals, and inform the cell.

* Enzymes: assemble or digest.

The role (or function) of a protein depends on its shape, and chemical
formula.

Proteins play a number of vital roles in all organisms. Unlike
carbohydrates and lipids they always contain nitrogen as well as
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sulphuris often present.

The building blocks of the proteins are amino acids. Proteins are made
of a long chain of amino acids, sometimes modified by the addition of
sugars and phosphates. Amino acids unite to form proteins in much the
same manner the monosaccharides combine to form polysaccharides, and
fatty acids and glycerol combine to form fats and oils. This happens
when two amino acids reacts. The reaction occurs between the amino
group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another. To make
this happen a condensation reaction has to occur which involves the
removal of a molecule of water. Once this happens two amino acids
become joined by a peptide link to form a dipeptide. To form a
polypeptide a series of condensation reactions must happen which forms
a longer chain. The individuality of a particular protein is
determined by the sequence of amino acids comprising its polypeptide
chains, together with the pattern of folding and cross-linkages.

...


... middle of paper ...


...rs, nails, hooves and horns. Collagen
is another fibrous protein. It is the most abundant protein in
vertebrates, making up a third of their total protein mass. The human
body is mainly held together by collagen as it is found in bones,
cartilage, tendons, ligaments, connective tissue and skin. Collagen
fibres have a tensile strength greater than steel which makes it very
strong. Careful analysis of collagen had shown that they consist of
three polypeptide chains coiled round each other in a triple helix.
The resulting structure is like a plaited rope and has great strength.

In conclusion proteins are probably the most important class of
biochemical molecules, although of course lipids and carbohydrates are
also essential for life. Proteins are the basis for the major
structural components of animal and human tissue.

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