The tobacco industry is important to the economy. In 1991, worldwide tobacco sales exceeded $59.8 billion and in 1992 the industry was rated as one of the top one hundred advertisers (Pechmann and Ratneshwar, 1994). However, there are high prices to pay - socially, economically, and personally - as a result of this industry. Annual mortality figures indicate that cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in the United States. An estimated 390,000 people die each year of smoke related illnesses, which is greater than the combined mortality for cocaine, crack, AIDS, homicide, suicide, and alcohol abuse (Botvin, G., Baker, Botvin, E., Dusenbury, Cardwell, and Diaz, 1993).
This paper will review research which suggests that social influences on smoking occur as a result of several external factors that adolescents face on a daily basis - parental factors, peer pressure, and advertising. Many current and past smokers began experimentation and use during their adolescent years. Social influence is a central component of all models of adolescent substance abuse. It is assumed to be a direct predictor of experimentation and initiation with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. One of the major theories that is used to describe this phenomenon is the social control theory. This theory describes bonding factors, such as involvement, family attachment, job or education commitment, and belief in conventional social norms and values. Involvement refers to the idea that individuals who are deeply involved in non deviant activities lack the time to get involved in deviant acts. Attachment to others who value positive norms tends to decrease the likelihood of deviation from t...
... middle of paper ...
...ner, E. H., Diehr, W., & Psaty, B. (1995). School-level application of a social bonding model to adolescent risk-taking behavior. Journal of School Health, 65, 63-69.
Morgan, M. & Grube, J. (1989). Adolescent cigarette smoking: A developmental analysis of influences. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7, 179-189.
Newman, I., & Ward. J. (1989). The influence of parental attitude and behavior on early adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of School Health, 59, 150-153.
Pechmann, C. & Ratneshwar, S. (1994). The effects of anti smoking and cigarette advertising on young adolescents' perceptions of peers who smoke. Journal of Consumer Research, 21, 236-251.
Sussman, S., Hahn, G., Dent, C. W., Stacy, A. W., Burton, D. & Flay, B. R. (1993). Naturalistic observation of adolescent tobacco use. International Journal of Addictions, 28, 803-811.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Psychological and Sociological Factors in Smoking Addiction Understanding the habit of smoking tobacco The essay will discuss how smoking tobacco became a habit among people; what are the factors that affect the thinking of individuals in experimenting tobacco smoking; and what makes them think of quitting smoking. It will address both psychological and sociological ideas and will attempt to apply each idea in order to understand people’s lifestyles. Introduction Tobacco is a green and leafy plant and mostly grows in a warm environment.... [tags: Smoking, psychological and social influences]
2472 words (7.1 pages)
- Tobacco smoking is a public health issue that continues to rise globally and causes between five to six million deaths worldwide each year (1). According to the World Health Organization, over five million of those deaths are attributed to the direct use of tobacco and approximately 600 000 deaths result from the exposure to second hand-smoke. Several carcinogenic products and harmful chemicals are incorporated in cigarettes and can contribute to the onset of a variety of diseases and illnesses.... [tags: Tobacco, Smoking, Nicotine, Tobacco smoking]
1372 words (3.9 pages)
- ... I was magnetic. Though my wrinkles were coming in earlier than I had hoped, I was still fucking rad. The stench of the 3 packs I smoked a day followed me around like a groupie. Everyone knew who I was and where I was coming from. Don’t you want instant recognition. Half the fun in smoking is that people know what you do right away, they understand the lifestyle you follow. All teenagers say that smoking is the best social activity and conversation starter. It bonds the people together. Smoking cigarettes is a cult, a religion, a philosophy.... [tags: Tobacco, Smoking, Tobacco smoking, Cigarette]
1636 words (4.7 pages)
- ... Peer group pressure is widely regarded as a central factor affecting young people 's early experimentation with tobacco and their subsequent willingness to continue smoking. The predominate wisdom among health professionals and policy makers is that young people are victims of pressures to conformity exerted over them by their peer group. Obedience is important, but at times it can be unfavorable. “Obedience to authority is, in large part, responsible for the high medication error rates seen daily in hospitals.... [tags: Sociology, Psychology, Social psychology]
1022 words (2.9 pages)
- ... If an adolescent is raised with certain values they know that they will not be pleasing their parents this can prevent smoking bit it can also cause them to smoke. This can also be negative; if a parent is smoking around their children then they will have easier access to cigarettes. The relationships that are formed at school and the school environment plays a big factor in the poor academic achieving adolescents urge to smoke cigarettes. If students are not successful in the classroom there is typically something personal going on in their life that is affecting their learning.... [tags: Tobacco smoking, Smoking, Cigarette, Nicotine]
1255 words (3.6 pages)
- Health behaviour theorists have long attested to the importance of social influences in health decision making. For example, the prominent Social Cognitive Theory builds in a construct of outcome expectancies, of which social outcome expectancies, or the value of the anticipated reaction of those in one’s environment, play a role. In essence, an individual is going to consider anticipated approving or disapproving responses, by his/her peers, to a particular health decision, and the perceived reaction will affect the decision that is made (Lusczynska and Schwarzer, 2007).... [tags: Sociology]
1405 words (4 pages)
- Smoking in Films Your soda and popcorn are empty and the end credits are running on the newest blockbuster to hit theaters. What is on your mind when you leave the movies. Is it the number of times the actors lit up cigarettes during the two-hour flick. While you probably did not consciously notice all the smoke, the fact is that there were teenagers watching the movie that may now take up the habit because of what they saw on the screen. More and more, smoking in movies is being identified as a leading cause of teen smoking.... [tags: Tobacco Cigarettes Movies]
1633 words (4.7 pages)
- Healthy People 2020 is a movement in America which was started in 1979 and provides 10 year national objectives based on science for promoting health and preventing diseases. It sets and monitors health objectives and tries to influence individuals to make informed health decisions. With such kind of objectives, smoking becomes a big health concern to Healthy People 2020. Smoking affects national health and causes health disparities. Smoking has been associated with a number of health complications such as cancer and heart diseases.... [tags: Health & Wellness, informative, expository]
1871 words (5.3 pages)
- Youth Smoking and Prevention Introduction: Ascertaining the Issue and Addressing the Problem As we progress into a more sophisticated and knowledgeable future, it is no wonder that our prosperity and health are first on our list of priorities. By simply looking at the longevity people have in today's world, one can see something that was unfathomable less than one hundred years ago. In this proposal, an issue is addressed that deals on many levels. It is an issue that touches everyone, whether one is directly involved or not.... [tags: Tobacco Addiction Papers]
3801 words (10.9 pages)
- If a new policy to develop a smoke free environment for the university is to be created, the policy must consider the following four important factors: bans on smoking, anti-smoking ads, public lectures, and the age of the spokespeople. Firstly, creating bans on smoking in the university premises may seem as a harsh strategy, especially to students who are highly addicted to smoking. This strategy can be implemented with the help of strict security personnel, who should ensure that any student caught smoking in the university is stopped.... [tags: university students, ads]
1749 words (5 pages)