John Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California, on February 27, 1902. He studied marine biology at Stanford University and then traveled east on a freighter through the Panama Canal. Steinbeck went to New York to work as a newspaper reporter but soon returned to California and held a variety of jobs while he wrote. Steinbeck published Tortilla Flat in 1935, Of Mice and Men in 1937, and The Red Pony in 1937, which established his reputation as a forceful writer. In 1939 he wrote The Grapes of Wrath, which summoned up the despair and hardship of the early 1930's. John Steinbeck died in 1968. The Grapes of Wrath is a story about one family's hardship during the Depression and the Dust Bowl of the 1930's. The Joads were a hard-working family with a strong sense of togetherness and morals; they farmed their land and went about their business without bothering anyone. When the big drought hit it forced them to sell the land they had lived on since before anyone can remember. Their oldest son, Tom, has been in jail the past four years and returns to find his childhood home abandoned. He learns his family has moved in with his Uncle John and decides to travel a short distance to see them. He arrives only to learn they are packing up their belongings and moving to California, someplace where there is a promise of work and food. This sets the Joad family off on a long and arduous journey with one goal: to survive. In this novel Steinbeck set forth with the intention of raising awareness to the general public of the difficulties and injustices these migrants faced during this period in time. It exposed the methods of the California farmer to use the migrants in order to lower their costs and make ...
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...rch, 1980. 5:405 Pratt, John Clark. "Contemporary Writer's in Christian Perspective." (1970). Rpt. Contemporary Literary Criticism 132 vols. Ed. Debria Bryfonski et al. Detroit: Gales Research, 1980. 1:327. Rombold, Tamara. "Biblical Inversion in The Grapes of Wrath." College Literature. 1987. 14:146-66. Slade, L.A. "The Uses of Biblical Allusions in The Grapes of Wrath." 1968. 11:241-7 Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. 1939. New York: Penguin, 1992. Westbrook, Max. "The Modern American Novel: Essays in Criticism." (1966): 170-71. Rpt. Contemporary Literary Criticism 132 vols. Ed. Debria Bryfonski et al. Detroit: Gales Research, 1980. 1:326. Wilson, Edmund. "John Steinbeck." Classics and Commercials: A Literary Chronicle of the Forties. 1950: 35-45. Rpt. Contemporary Literary Criticism 132 vols. Ed. Debria Bryfonski et al. Detroit: Gales Research, 1980. 13:530.
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