Affirmative action has assisted many members of minority groups in creating equal opportunities in education and employment. Who could object to assisting these minorities, who suffered years of discrimination, in getting the equal opportunity they deserve? The problem is, affirmative action promotes racial preferences and quotas which cause mixed emotions. One time supporters of affirmative action are now calling out “reverse discrimination”. If we want a stronger support for affirmative action we need to get rid of the preferential treatments.
The back bone of affirmative action began with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment on December 18, 1865. The amendment abolished slavery and any involuntary labor (“Federal laws,” 1998). This showed there was a calling for equal opportunity for all Americans.
When the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, there were opponents who were skeptical of the amendment. Because of this they came up with two separate bills of their own: the civil rights bill, and an amendment to the Freedmen’s Bureau Act. The bills covered all citizens, not just blacks. The civil rights bill moved on to become the Civil Rights Act of 1866 (Dorsen, 1994). The Act states that "all persons shall have the same rights...to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws..." (“Federal laws,” 1998).
The turn of the century saw a minimal amount of legislation regarding discrimination. However, come the mid part of the century, an upheaval of civil disobedience and violent protests would spark what would come to be known as The Civil Rights Movement (Dorsen, 1994). This was an al...
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...(1997). The future of affirmative action: Social policy and judicial reality. pp.1-47. [On-line] Available: Eric Database ED 408 704.
Noel, M. (1997). Affirmative action in higher education: Three approaches to the issue. pp. 1-6. [On-line] Available: Eric Database ED 414 780.
Michel, L. (1998, January 20). Group claims some police officers posed as Hispanics in order to gain employment. Buffalo News. (NewsBank, affirmative action, 1998).
Shepard, P. (1998, July 15). Powell puts qualifier on affirmative action, learning best NAACP priorities. Washington Times. (NewsBank, affirmative action, 1998).
Williams, M.E. (1997). Discrimination: Opposing viewpoints. [On-line] Available: Eric Database ED 409 391.
Zinsmeister, K. (1997). Indicators: race preferences shrivel. The American Enterprise, 8 (1), p.18. [On-line] Available: Expanded Academic SearchBank.
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