Nine reactions, each catalyzed by a specific enzyme, makeup the process we call glycolysis. ALL organisms have glycolysis occurring in their cytoplasm.
At steps 1 and 3 ATP is converted into ADP, inputting energy into the reaction as well as attaching a phosphate to the glucose. At steps 6 and 9 ADP is converted into the higher energy ATP. At step 5 NAD+ is converted into NADH + H+.
The process works on glucose, a 6-C, until step 4 splits the 6-C into two 3-C compounds. Glyceraldehyde phosphate (GAP, also known as phosphoglyceraldehyde, PGAL) is the more readily used of the two. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be converted into GAP by the enzyme Isomerase. The end of the glycolysis process yields two pyruvic acid (3-C) molecules, and a net gain of 2 ATP and two NADH per glucose.
Under anaerobic conditions, the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid can be routed by the organism into one of three pathways: lactic acid fermentation, alcohol fermentation, or cellular (anaerobic) respiration. Humans cannot ferment alcohol in their own bodies, we lack the genetic information to do so. These biochemical pathways, with their myriad reactions catalyzed by reaction-specific enzymes all under genetic control, are extremely complex. We will only skim the surface at this time and in this course.
Alcohol fermentation is the formation of alcohol from sugar. Yeast, when under anaerobic conditions, convert glucose to pyruvic acid via the glycolysis pathways, then go one step farther, converting pyruvic acid into ethanol, a C-2 compound.
Fermentation of ethanol. Image from W.H. Freeman and Sinauer Associates, used by permission.
Many organisms will also ferment pyruvic acid into, oth...
... middle of paper ...
...olecules that pass the "hot potatoes" (electrons) along the ETS chain. Energy released by the "downhill" passage of electrons is captured as ATP by ADP molecules. The ADP is reduced by the gain of electrons. ATP formed in this way is made by the process of oxidative phosphorylation. The mechanism for the oxidative phosphorylation process is the gradient of H+ ions discovered across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This mechanism is known as chemiosmotic coupling. This involves both chemical and transport processes. Drops in the potential energy of electrons moving down the ETS chain occur at three points. These points turn out to be where ADP + P are converted into ATP. Potential energy is captured by ADP and stored in the pyrophosphate bond. NADH enters the ETS chain at the beginning, yielding 3 ATP per NADH. FADH2 enters at Co-Q, producing only 2 ATP per FADH2.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- 1. Glycolysis is an essential anaerobic pathway for ATP production in the body. There are various steps and processes that occur and lead to the production of various products and most importantly ATP. Let’s dive right into it and get started on the process of glycolysis. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell and can be divided into three different phases, which include sugar activation, sugar cleavage, and lastly sugar oxidation and ATP formation. The first steps in glycolysis require ATP to get started, this can be thought of as the investment phase of glycolysis.... [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]
1902 words (5.4 pages)
- Respiration can be defined as the oxidation of the end products of glycolysis with the storage of the energy in the form of ATP. Cellular respiration occurs when oxygen is available, and the products are carbon dioxide and water. There are three main pathways in the cellular respiration process. These are: pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and the respiratory chain. Pyruvate oxidation in eukaryotic cells occurs inside the mitochondrion in the inner membrane, and in prokaryotes on the inner face of the plasma membrane.... [tags: essays research papers]
1128 words (3.2 pages)
The Effect Of Starch On Carbohydrates, The Main Focal Point Of Carbohydrate Metabolism And Energy Production
- Starch in carbohydrates is the major source of dietary glucose which is the main focal point of carbohydrate metabolism and energy production. The energy generation process runs through a number of different metabolic pathways of glucose oxidation and is divided into 4 main stages. Digestion Following a meal, it is the first stage of carbohydrate metabolism which breaks down food molecules into smaller chemical units that can be utilised further by various cells. Small amount of complex carbohydrates begin their digestion in the mouth where the amylase enzyme from saliva catalyses the hydrolyses of complex starch molecules and the production of smaller polysaccharide and disaccharide molecul... [tags: Adenosine triphosphate, Metabolism, Glycolysis]
922 words (2.6 pages)
Cloning and Sequencing a Portion of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene from the Leaves of Soleirolia Soleirolii
- ￼ Cloning and Sequencing a Portion of Glyceraldehyde-3-phospate Dehydrogenase Gene from the Leaves of Soleirolia Soleirolii December 13, 2013 Introduction Without energy, plants cease to exist. Energy is a vital part in the process known as photosynthesis. In this pathway of photosynthesis, glycolysis helps yields ATP and NADH. The ATP released through glycolysis is energy that is reused to go through another production of photosynthesis. The Glyceraldehyde 3-phsophate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene is important in the process of glycolysis.... [tags: glycolysis, photosynthesis, cancer, enzyme]
2187 words (6.2 pages)
- Enzymes are amazing biological catalysts. In fact, the human body would not live without enzymes due to the chemical reactions compelled to sustain the body clearly would not develop quickly enough. Enzymes do not cause a reaction to happen that would already be taking place they just make it faster. Second, the enzyme molecule is not completely transformed by the reaction. It may be altered momentarily, although the enzyme at the closing of the reaction is the identical molecule it had been at the beginning.... [tags: Adenosine triphosphate, Glycolysis]
1288 words (3.7 pages)
- From my reading I learned that cellular respiration is a multi-step metabolic reaction type process that takes place in each living organism 's cell rather it be plant or animal. It’s my understanding that there are two types of cellular respiration, one called aerobic cellular respiration which required oxygen and anaerobic cellular respiration that does not require oxygen. In the anaerobic cellular respiration process, unlike the aerobic process oxygen is not required nor is it the last electron acceptor there by producing fewer ATP molecules and releasing byproducts of alcohol or lactic acid.... [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]
1053 words (3 pages)
- Aerobic: in general 1. occurs in presence of oxygen. 2. CO2 and water is produced 3. lot of energy is liberated (38 ATP) 4.occurs in plants' and animals' cells 5. C6H12O6 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP (Energy) ATP from aerobic respiration of glucose For longer periods of exercise muscle cells need oxygen supplied by the blood for aerobic respiration. This provides far more energy (36 molecules of ATP from each molecule of glucose), but the rate at which it can be produced is limited by how quickly oxygen can be provided.... [tags: Science]
625 words (1.8 pages)
- ... You want to fill the conical tube to at least 50 ml of water (Cressy). Take the four conical tubes filled with water and place two in each beaker, to do this you must invert the tube and cover the release hole as to not lose any water (Cressy). Then place the beakers with the tubes in the bath so they can be at the same temperature as the bath (Cressy). Next mark all of your test tubes in number order to be sure which tube contains what concentrations and pH (Cressy). Having mixed a solution to the specifications of 2.5 ml of glucose in all tubes, 3 ml of yeast in 2 tubes of pH 5, 2 tubes of pH 9, and the single pH 7 tube, the remaining two tubes will contain no yeast as they will be neg... [tags: metabolic process, oxygen molecules]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- Most global corporations in today’s business world are focusing on their business process and ways to manage those processes in order to become successful and leverage themselves against competitors. The understanding is that efficient business processes are beneficial to the business in the long run when considering factors like cost reduction, meeting customer’s expectations and streamlining business operations to eliminate any loopholes that are detrimental to the business. Change (2016) defines business process management as an approach that focuses on workflow of the firm and in the process divulging any errors that may hinder good performance, hence, it is used to structure a firm’s w... [tags: Management, Process management]
896 words (2.6 pages)
- What are the five steps in a process costing system to assign costs to units completed and to units in ending work in process. Process costing is a management accounting function. Business owners use this function to accurately calculate as well as to apply the business costs for producing specific types of goods. Process costing provides costing system for homogenous goods , which usually have little differentiation from one item to the next item. Paper, petroleum, chemical, textile and food processing industries generally use process costing.... [tags: Process Accounting]
706 words (2 pages)
- The Use of Numbers to Interpret Reality for Artificial Intelligence
- Reasons to Increase Research of Lactose Intolerance
- Preventing Problems with the Human Circulatory System
- The Role of B Vitamins
- Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
- Lab on the Relationships of Time, Distance, and Acceleration at Constant Velocity