Electrophoresis Essays

Electrophoresis Essays

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Electrophoresis





I. Purpose
· perform electrophoresis using restriction enzymes and lambda DNA

· understand how a restriction enzyme works
· analyze a photograph of electrophoresis

· understand how gel electrophoresis separates DNA molecules in a mixture
· how to use electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments
· determine unknown DNA fragment sizes when given DNA fragments of known size

II. Materials
agarose powder
casting tray and comb
camera
crushed ice container
distilled water
DNA samples
electronic scale with tare
electrophoresis box
250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks
film
graduated cylinder
hood
ice
loading dye
microcentrifuge
micropipet and tips
1.5 ml reaction tubes and racks
restriction buffer
restriction enzymes (HindIII, EcoRI, BamHI)
10x TEA buffer
UV filter
UV transilluminator
37º C water bath
weighing boat

III. Procedure
Place the weighing boat on the scale and tare. Weigh out 0.8 ml of agarose powder and place it into a 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask.
Add 10 ml of 10x TEA buffer and 90 ml of distilled water into a graduated cylinder to create a 1x TEA buffer solution. Add this to the Erlenmeyer flask containing the 0.8 ml of agarose.
Dissolve and boil the agarose solution in a microwave, about 2-3 minutes.
Place clean bottom of the casting tray in place, and pour in the agarose solution. Place the casting comb in place. Allow gel mold to set undisturbed until almost opaque, about 10 minutes.
Fill a graduated cylinder with 50 ml of 10x TEA buffer and 450 ml of distilled water, creating 500 ml of 1x TEA buffer.
In each of the four restriction enzyme tubes, combine 1.0 µl of restriction buffer, 7.0 µl of distilled water, 1.0 µl of the specific enzyme (eith...


... middle of paper ...


...tion enzymes are found naturally in bacteria. They act as a protection against viral infections, as they break down incoming viral DNA.

4. The electricity in electrophoresis acts on DNA as a magnet does to another magnet. DNA has a slightly negative charge. The samples containing DNA are loaded at the cathode or negative end. When the power is activated, the DNA is attracted towards the positive end of the electrophoresis box. The agarose gel provides a means of slowing the DNA down. The DNA fragments must work through the gel matrix in order to reach the end.

5.








6. The loading acts as a point of reference. It allows the person performing the experiment to see how far down the DNA sample has moved. The DNA is photographed using ethidium bromide, a UV-sensitive substance and an ultraviolet transilluminator to highlight the DNA strands.

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