The function of defense is to protect the Ego, and defence may be instigated by Anxiety due to increase in instinctual tension, Super-Ego threats or realistic dangers. Anna Freud lists nine defence : REGRESSION, repression, REACTION FORMATION, ISOLATION, UNDOING, PROJECTION, INTROJECTION, TURNING AGAINST THE SELF, and REVERSAL - plus tenth SUBLIMATION. SPLITTING and DENIAL are also usually listed as defence.
It is usually assumed that defence belong to specific stages of development, e.g. INTROJECTION , projection, denial , splitting to the ORAL phase; reaction-formation , isolation and undoing to the ANAL phase.
Defence Mechanisms are unconscious mental processes which are employed to resolve conflict between instinctive needs ( The Id ), internalized prohibitions (The Super-Ego) and external reality. They Are directed against painful experiences. They are descriptive concepts only.
It is the basic defence mechanism. There is refusal to recognize external reality and pushing into unconscious of the unacceptable instincts and feelings or conflicting impulses.
Thus their perception is inhibited and prevented from reaching consciousness. Denial is a CONSCIOUS refusal of recognition of external reality.
Return to an earlier state or mode of functioning. It is a defensive process by which the subject avoids anxiety by return an earlier stage of psychosexual development . The stage to which the regression occurs being determined by the existence of FIXATION POINTS.
The process by which energ(CATHEXIS) is transferred from one mental image to another. Displacement is one of the p...
... middle of paper ...
...· REGRESSION is used in Conversion Hysteria and Eating Disorders.
· REVERSAL is manifested in Passive Aggressive and Dependant Personality Disorders.
KLEINIAN DEFENSE MECHANISMS:-
Freud talked about splitting of the ego, but Melanie Klein considered Splitting as a defense mechanism. The positive and the negative fantasized relationships remain separate in consciousness with one alternative dissociated from the other. The child sees the Good Mother as Separate from the Bad Mother , the patient may see the Madonna as totally different and has nothing to do with the Prostitute.
· PROJECTIVE IDENTIFICATION:
Part of self is projected into another to harm , control or possess him or her. The dissociated unacceptable parts of the self are projected onto the other then the person identifies with the other.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Defense mechanism, in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions. Sigmund Freud first used defense as a psychoanalytic term (1894), but he did not break the notion into categories, viewing it as a singular phenomenon of repression. His daughter, Anna Freud, expanded on his theories in the 1930s, distinguishing some of the major defense mechanisms recognized today. Primary defense mechanisms include repression and denial, which serve to prevent unacceptable ideas or impulses from entering the conscience.... [tags: Defense Mechanisms]
3474 words (9.9 pages)
- Many people endure experiences throughout life that are either auspicious or malevolent. In addition, people also have desires and urges that are deemed either socially popular or unacceptable within society. However, it is the malevolent experiences and unacceptable urges that sometimes have a greater influence on people distorting reality. This is so because people often want to forget or ignore their unpleasant experiences and predilections. Inconsequently, in order to protect oneself from the cognizance of anxiety or guilt, a public and somewhat unconscious façade is displayed to conceal inner tension.... [tags: Sigmund Freud, Mechanism Theory, Defense Mechanism]
1129 words (3.2 pages)
- Sigmund Freud is perhaps one of the most well-known theorists in regards to the study of the human psyche. Freud’s model of the human psyche is comprised of three core elements: the Id, or the unconscious mind; things out of our awareness. The Superego, or the subconscious mind, and finally the Ego, which lies between the unconscious and subconscious. Freud proposes that there are nine ego defense mechanisms that act the ego uses in its job as the mediator between the id and the superego. In psychoanalysis, an ego defense mechanism is an unconscious personality reaction that the ego uses to protect our conscious mind from threatening feelings or perceptions.... [tags: denial displacement projection rationalization]
522 words (1.5 pages)
- From Sigmund Freud 's point of view all his theories were proven in this book. His first theory of Defense Mechanism was present when Jack’s mom used denial when she believed Jack was just a rebirth of her daughter who died during birth, so she didn’t feel the need to face the feelings of the daughter 's death. His second theory of Psychosexual Stages was present when Jack had a strong oral fixation of needing to “get some”, or else known as breast feeding from his mom, and phallic stage because Jack mentioned repeatedly throughout the book about his penis.... [tags: Psychosexual development, Sigmund Freud]
774 words (2.2 pages)
- The concept of mental health is linked to the belief of the optimal development of the individual within their environment, considering their age, innate capacity, living conditions and culture. More precisely, mental health can be defined as the individual's ability to: * Establish relationships with others. * Participate constructively in the modifications of the environment. * Resolve your potential conflicts adequately. * Develop your personality by integrating your instinctive drives into social achievements.... [tags: Defence mechanism, Psychology, Id, ego]
869 words (2.5 pages)
- Defense mechanisms are unconscious procedures aimed at reducing anxiety that arises from different scenarios involving the social environment, conflicts with others, and conflicts with superego values and beliefs. They were first discovered by Sigmund Freud as part of his psychoanalytic theory, and further developed by his daughter, Anna Freud. They discovered unconscious mechanisms, which are part of the mind that contains repressed anxieties, and they are able to protect an individual from psychological pain or anxiety.... [tags: Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, Defence mechanism]
1095 words (3.1 pages)
- During the 1890s, Sigmund Freud introduced the psychoanalytic theory which stated that one’s psyche is governed by the id, ego and superego. It is evident that in Death of a Salesman, this psychological lens can be applied to Willy Loman in order to understand his actions and thoughts. Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller is about a delusional salesman who wishes to fulfill the American Dream and his dysfunctional family who do not live up to his expectations. Through the psychoanalysis of Death of a Salesman, it is evident that Willy’s personality is a product of his id, ego, and superego.... [tags: Sigmund Freud, Defence mechanism, Id, ego]
1611 words (4.6 pages)
- In our everyday life, we meet and interact with different types of people that has diverse cultural view, behavior, and approach to similar situations. When Sigmund Freud coined the term “Defense Mechanism”, he gave it a simple definition to the term— “The ego’s protective method of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.” With this simple definition, these are some of the mechanism that my brother and I used unconsciously. Regression This type of defense mechanism is used when people are anxious and want to calm themselves down by performing a comforting act.... [tags: projection, rationalization, displacement]
782 words (2.2 pages)
- Ever since the defense mechanism of sublimation was coined by Freud in “Three Essays” (1905), the psychological community has been particularly interested further investigating the validity of this concept and reforming new theories around it. Sublimation today is described as a mature defense mechanism at which socially unacceptable impulses are transformed into socially acceptable aims. Freud referred to sublimation as a necessary component for a healthy psychological condition and as the most complete drive density.... [tags: Psychoanalysis, Psychology, Clinical psychology]
797 words (2.3 pages)
- The introduction of the psychoanalytic theory into the field of psychology in the late 19th century and early 20th century by Sigmund Freud provided an innovative approach toward the examination and treatment of an individual’s behaviors. Through Freud’s definition of psychoanalysis, the idea that behaviors are not random, but rather full of significance, was encapsulated. In general terms Freud viewed psychoanalysis as an attribution of thoughts and actions to an individual’s unconscious motives and conflicts through the use of personality and therapeutic methods.... [tags: Psychology ]
1283 words (3.7 pages)