I. In the Euthyphro, Euthyphro himself gives three proposals of piety. First, the pious is to prosecute the wrongdoer and the impious is not to prosecute the wrongdoer. Socrates disputes this example as lacking generality. He believed that in order to define piety, one had to find the form that made all pious acts pious. An example of a pious act does not in turn define piety. Euthyphro’s second attempt stated that the pious is loved by the gods, while the impious was hated by them. Again, Socrates objects, saying that although it passed the generality requirement, there was no conformity among the objects dear to the gods. After all, the gods had different opinions as did humans. Euthyphro then tries to modify his second attempt by narrowing the requirement to what is loved by all gods or hated by all gods. Socrates deflates this notion as well. He questions wether the pious is loved because the gods love it, or do the gods love it because it is loved. To be loved is a quality given by an act of love. The mere fact of being loved by a god does not give meaning to piety or make the act pious. The point was to find out what a pious act is before declaring it to be god-loved. Euthyphro’s third proposal was to say that piety is a knowledge of how to give to, and beg from the gods, or a part of justice concerned with care of the gods. However, Socrates was pretty blunt in pointing out that the gods lack nothing a human could provide, therefore making those acts of prayer or sacrifice, nothing but for the pleasure of the gods. The acts would then fit under what is beloved by the gods, which was already defeated as the second proposal. The definition of justice was left for a later di...
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...just or merely appear to be just. They asked themselves if the consequences of a just act, or being just, often included valuable rewards, would one still want to be just if those rewards never came to fruition? In order to find their answer to being or appearing just as the best course, they had to set aside those consequences and find out what justice was. They found true justice equated to harmony of the soul where as injustice was likened to that of a civil war between its three parts. The civil war obviously causing harm to ones soul. To be out of balance, or at war with ones self, was akin to being unhealthy and unhealthy would then be unhappiness. Without the societal rewards of being just there were inherent rewards for taking care of the mind and body, therefore it was better to be just.
Euthyphro and The Republic-Books 1-9
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