Alexander II's Title as Tsar Liberator Essay

Alexander II's Title as Tsar Liberator Essay

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Alexander II's Title as Tsar Liberator

Amid the Crimean War克里米亞戰爭 of 1854-56, Alexander II阿歷山大二世
succeededç¹¼ä½ to the throneçš‡ä½ of the Romanov Dynastyç¾…æ›¼è«¾å¤«çš‡æœ of Czarist
Russia. Russia was finally defeated. He saw hopes of Russia's recovery
in reforms. During his reign在ä½æœŸé–“ in 1855-81, Alexander II carried out
a broad reform programme, covering the Emancipation of Serfs解放農奴,
establishment of zemstva地方議會, judicialå¸æ³•, educational, economic and
military reforms as well as relaxation放寬 of press censorship報刊檢查.
Mosse莫斯 named him the "Czar Liberator沙皇解放者". Yet the failure of the
reforms led to revolutionary plots陰謀 and he was even assassinated被暗殺
in 1881.

From the lessons教訓 of Russia's defeat in the Crimean War, Alexander II
concluded that the root of many Russian problems was the outdated
serfdom農奴制度. Both Czars Alexander I 阿歷山大一世 (1801-25) and Nicholas
Iå°¼å¤æ‹‰ä¸€ä¸– (1825-55) had condemned譴責 this system. Owing to political
crises (frequent peasant riotsæš´å‹•), humanitarianism人é“主義, liberalism, as
well as needs of military, industrial and agricultural developments,
the "Czar Liberator" issued the Emancipation Edict of Serfs 解放農奴詔令 in
1861.

By the Edict, 34.4% of the Russian population was freed. The
government bought both lands and serfs from landlords. Mirs公社 were set
up to manage the serfs. Yet ex-serfså‰è¾²å¥´ were required to repayå„Ÿé‚„ the
redemption money贖身費 for 49 years with interest. Besides, they needed
to shoulderè‚©è² èµ· the soul taxéˆé­‚稅 and pay rents for the lands. Before...


... middle of paper ...


...it核數 were improved. After 1862 the budget was made
public.

In a nutshell總而言之, Alexander II's reform programme was not effective
enough to solve Russia's problems but created more. The life of
peasants and workers was not improved. The gentry were angry about the
loss of privileged status and insufficient government compensation.
Mosse says, "The terms of the liberation were a compromise which could
satisfy neither of the main social groups." As discussed above, many
of his "liberal experiment自由實驗" even sowed the seedsæ’­ä¸‹ç¨®å­ of the
Russian Revolutions. He did not deserve值得 the name "Czar Liberator",
either, as he carried out reforms from above. Nevertheless, it was so
brave of him to conduct such a comprehensive reform programme, and he
did make much contribution to Russia's modernization.

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