Nuclei and mitochondria are both organelles that are found within most
eukaryotic cells. The nucleus contains most of the genes needed for
classification. It is "one of the most prominent structures to be
encountered in the eukaryotic cell" (Schwarz 24). Nuclei were first
observed by a Scottish plant taxonomist name Robert Brown in 1831. He
studying Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae at the time when he noticed a
structure in the cell that was consistent with much of the cells he
was viewing. He termed this "the nucleus" (Enersen 1). Later in the 19th
century scientists started using dyes to stain the nucleus. It was
found to be consistent in plant cells as well as cellular division
(Robert 1). The nucleus is enclosed by a double membrane nuclear
envelope. Inside the nucleus DNA is organized into material called
chromatin (Biology 117). Nuclei are the central part of the cell, the
densest organelle, and considered to be the brain of the cell.
Mitochondria are believed by many to be the result of a symbiotic
relationship between a bacteria and a primitive cell. This theory is
called "the endosymbiont hypothesis" (Schwarz 24). Some believe that
early bacteria invaded or were engulfed by a cell and instead of being
digested the bacteria formed a symbiotic relationship. Mitochondria
are involved in the catabolic process that generated ATP from sugars,
fats, and other forms of fuel. ATP, adenosine triphosphate, is an
organism's energy source. Living things convert fuels into ATP which
is handled easier by the creature. Mitochondria are enclosed in a
... middle of paper ...
...s feasible. The process of
differential centrifugation describe above is a worthy procedure to
use if small particles are needed to be isolated and observed. This
experiment illustrates how this process can be carried out as well as
provides data found on completion.
Biology (6th ed.). ed. Neil A. Campbell and Jane B. Reece. San
Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2002.
Enerson, Daniel Ole. "Robert Brown." Who Named IT?
"Robert Hooke Describes Cells."
Schwarz, Otto J. "Introduction to Basic Laboratory Skills for the
Biological Sciences- An Experimental Approach." Oak Ridge, TN:
Performance Press, 2000.
Figure 1 Nuclear Diameters
Text Box: Nuclei observed[IMAGE]
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Mitochondria are small organelles found in eukaryotic cells which respire aerobically. They are responsible for generating energy from food to ‘power the cell’. They contain their own DNA, reproducing by dividing in 2. As they closely resemble bacteria, it gave the idea that they were derived from bacteria (which were engulfed by ancestors of the eukaryotes we know today). This idea has since been confirmed from further investigations, and it is now widely accepted. (Alberts et al., 2010a) The genes which encode for the mitochondria’s component proteins are in 2 separate genetic systems in 2 different locations.... [tags: mitochondrial genome]
861 words (2.5 pages)
- The majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome with only 13 polypeptides being encoded by mitochondrial genes which represent less than 1% of total mitochondrial protein. A prominent examples of mitochondrial proteins encoded by nuclear genome are FH and SDH enzyme complex which functions not only in mitochondrial energy production but also act as a tumor suppressors and mutations in both genes have been implicated in the predisposition to different type of cancer. (B. E.... [tags: Cancer, DNA, Mutation, Mitochondrion]
1262 words (3.6 pages)
- In vitro fertilisation: ethical problems of mitochondrial DNA and three biological parents Mitochondria are essential for the cell energy production through the citric acid cycle. In order for the cycle to work in a best way possible, the mitochondria are equiped with their own DNA that primarily codes for proteins vital to the energy production and oxidative metabolism of the cells. Mitochondrial DNA has several differences to nuclear DNA. Unlike the ”regular” nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA in circular like most bacterial DNA and unlike nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA is more prone to possible mutations.... [tags: energy, cell, mitochondrila, dna]
785 words (2.2 pages)
- Some symptoms of mitochondrial diseases are subtle while others are lifelong and easily noticable. Mitochondrial disease can either be adult-onset or child-onset; usually childhood mitochondrial disease is more astringent “and includes progressive neurological, cardiac, and liver dysfunction.” An expansive array of symptoms may be apparent in childhood mitochondrial disease, “including lethargy, hypotonia, failure to thrive, seizures, cardiomyopathy, deafness, blindness, movement disorder, and lactic acidosis.” On the other hand, most patients with mitochondrial disease do not display very discernible symptoms.... [tags: Mitochondrial Disease Essays]
1246 words (3.6 pages)
- Division and Fusion in Mitochondria Mitochondria are essential organelles in many cells. Each component of mitochondria have distinct roles that they must partake in for the sake of the cell’s survival. Mitochondria have their own genetic system that encodes directions for the mitochondria’s different processes. Oxidative phosphorylation, an activity that is necessary to the cell takes place within the mitochondria, along with electron transport. Mitochondria also take part in processes that benefit themselves, including fusion and division (Hales, 2010).... [tags: cellular biology, parkinson's disease]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- Enzyme Kinetics Enzymes are described as the organic catalysts, which increase the rate of reaction of a biochemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reaction without being used up, and therefore they are reusable (Jonathan, 2012). The enzyme studied in this lab was succinate dehydrogenase. Enzyme kinetics is the study of how biological catalysts increase the reaction rate in reactions. Without the catalysts, the biological procedures necessary for organisms would not continue at a rate that could sustain life.... [tags: proteins, mitochondria, dna]
1663 words (4.8 pages)
- Mitochondria Mitochondria are tiny organelles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. They are rather large organelles ranging from 0.5µm to 10µm in length and 1µm in diameter. The mitochondria are the energy factories of the cell and are located in the cytoplasm. They are the sites of cellular respiration. The mitochondria are responsible for generating ATP from such organic fuels as simple sugars and fats in the process of cellular respiration. This doubled-membrane organelle has its own DNA and can reproduce by splitting itself.... [tags: essays research papers]
756 words (2.2 pages)
- Mitochondria are double membraned organelles found in almost all eukaryotic cells. The outer membrane defines the external shape of the mitochondrion and is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that contains integral membrane protein structures knows as porins. The porins make the membrane permeable to ions, ATP, ADP and other molecules that are around 5000 Da or less. The inner membrane is more complex and covers a much larger surface area due to folds organized in layers called cristae. The cristae are covered with a protein complex called the FoF1 complex which is instrumental in ATP synthesis.... [tags: Cellular respiration, Adenosine triphosphate]
1509 words (4.3 pages)
- I. Introduction Out of all the organelles there are two that have fascinated microbiologists for the past hundred years. The first is the mitochondria, nicknamed the "powerhouse of the cell." The second is the chloroplast in plant cells that have functions similar to those of the mitochondria. What do these organelles do. What are the similarities and differences of these organelles. This essay will help you to understand these two fascinating organelles. II. Mitochondria Mitochondria are small cytoplasmic organelles.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
571 words (1.6 pages)
- ... We also knew that trying to get data for taste on the cauliflower mash is possible but take a relatively long time. Therefore we decided to do data scraping on Kraft Recipe website and extract comments and reviews concerning cauliflower mash with the Outwit tool. When we extracted the data we had to practice impartiality with the data collected since they were not only comments for cauliflower mash but comments on Kraft products as well. Despite knowing that the data is not absolute, we wanted to give Zero Cuisine an idea of how we can extract data to get an overall taste results in a relatively focused group that was already interested in cauliflower mash.... [tags: cooking, cauliflower, instant]
2494 words (7.1 pages)