Essay about Microscope Types

Essay about Microscope Types

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Microscope Types The most widely used microscopes are optical microscopes, which use
visible light to create a magnified image of an object. The simplest
form of optical microscope is the double-convex lens with a short
focal length. These lenses can magnify an object by up to 15 times. In
general, however, a compound microscope is used, which has multiple
lenses to provide more magnification than a single convex lens could
alone. Some optical microscopes can magnify an object by 2,000 times
or more.

The compound microscope consists essentially of two lens systems, the
objective and the ocular, mounted at opposite ends of a closed tube.
The objective lens is composed of several lens elements that form an
enlarged real image of the object being examined. The microscope
lenses are set up so that the real image formed by the objective lies
at the focal point of the ocular; the observer looking through the
ocular sees an enlarged virtual image of the real image. The total
magnification of the microscope is determined by the focal lengths of
the two lens systems.

The accessory equipment of an optical microscope includes a firm stand
with a flat stage for holding the material to be examined, and some
means for moving the microscope tube towards and away from the stage
so that the specimen can be brought into focus. Ordinarily, specimens
for microscopic examination are transparent and are viewed by using
light that passes through the specimen. The specimens are usually
mounted on thin, rectangular glass slides. The stage has a small hole

... middle of paper ...

...Ms and
powerful optical microscopes, SEMs produce detailed pictures of the
surface of objects, providing a realistic three-dimensional image.

Various other electron microscopes have been developed. A scanning
transmission electron microscope (STEM) combines elements of an SEM
and a TEM, and can resolve single atoms in a sample. An electron probe
microanalyser, which is an electron microscope fitted with an X-ray
spectrum analyser, can examine the high-energy X-rays that are emitted
by the sample when it is bombarded with electrons. Because the
identity of different atoms or molecules can be determined by
examining their X-ray emissions, electron probe analysers not only
provide a magnified image of the sample as a conventional electron
microscope does, but also information about the sample's chemical

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