plants. Roots are Carbon pumps that feed soil organisms and contribute
to soil organic matter, Storage organs, Chemical factories that may
change soil pH, poison competitors, they filter out toxins,
concentrate rare elements, etc. They are sensor network that helps
regulate plant growth, they are absorptive network for limiting soil
resources of water and nutrients they have mechanical structures that
support plants, strengthen soil, construct channels and break rocks.
The epidermis is the outmost layer of roots that functions as the
interface between plants and the soil. Cells of the epidermis of young
roots. Epidermal cells often have narrow projections called root hairs
that extend between soil particles. Root hairs may be long or short,
dense, spares, or absent altogether. Root hairs are considered to help
in direct mineral nutrient uptake by increasing the surface are of
roots. Roots also require minerals. Most importantly they need
nitrates. Nitrates from the soil are combined with carbohydrates from
photosynthesis to make proteins. All proteins contain nitrogen. Plants
get their nitrogen from nitrates. A plant with a shortage of nitrates
will suffer from poor growth and yellow leaves. Another mineral
required by plants is magnesium. Magnesium is needed to make
chlorophyll. Magnesium deficiency leads to yellow leaves. Plants
without minerals and nitrates will wilt. The xylem tubes in a plant
are dead c...
... middle of paper ...
as active transport. We call it active because it requires energy from
the cell. Active transport involves the use of proteins that don't
just passively facilitate the transport of substances across the cell
membrane, but require the use of cellular energy(usually ATP) to
actively pump substances into or out of the cell.
Active transport is used to:
1. Generate charge gradients.
2. Concentrate minerals and nutrients inside the cell that are in low
3. Keep unwanted ions or other molecules out of the cell that are able
to diffuse through the cell membrane.
In all these cases the key is that active transport uses energy to
send substances against the direction they would travel by simple
diffusion: that is from a region of low concentration to a region of
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