Abstract: Across the United States for the past half a century, the Department of Defense and the U.S. Army have been releasing biological agents over the very population they are supposed to protect. Although few Americans know it, open-air biological testing of stimulants such as aspergillus fumigatus, zinc cadmium sulfide, bacillus subtilis, and serratia marcescens has been taking place over populated areas since at least 1949. Between 1949 and 1969, the military admits to having conducted 239 open-air tests over populated areas in the United States. Testing has taken place in the San Francisco Bay area, New York City, and Washington, D.C., as well as in areas such as Hampton Roads, Virginia and Panama City, Florida. These open-air tests occur without the knowledge, or the consent, of both the general population and public officials and in fact, constitute a silent but potentially deadly form of terrorism against an uninformed and unsuspecting public. At least in instances of international or radical terrorism, the general population of the United States can feel secure in the fact that there are organizations designed to bring terrorists to justice; who, however, is going to defend citizens of the U.S. from the actions of the Department of Defense?
Much of the information about the United States' policy of biological warfare still remains confidential today. Most of what is known to the public, however, was revealed at the 1977 Congressional Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources and through the Freedom of Information Act. At the Congressional Hearings, Senators Kennedy and Schweiker questioned both military officials and non-military scientists ...
... middle of paper ...
... A Study of Proliferation. London: MacMillan, 1994.
U.S. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. Hearings on Examination of the Development of New Medical Technologies, Research in Disease Prevention, and General Issues in Biomedical Research in the United States. 95th Cong., 1st sess., 19, 20 July, 16 Sept, and 10 Nov 1977.
U.S. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. Hearings on the Examination of Serious Deficiencies in the Defense Department's Efforts to Protect the Humans Subjects of Drug Research. 95th Cong., 1st sess. 8 March and 23 May, 1977.
U.S. Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. Hearings on Oversight of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in the United States. 95th Cong., 1st sess., 31 March and 1 April 1977.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Biological Warfare: Testing and Researching Toxins Biological Warfare is the use and employment of biological agents to harm or kill humans, animals, or plant life. Bio warfare can cause a significant amount of casualties with less preparation and work then other types of attacks. The weapons are relatively cheap and, unlike explosive attacks, biological attacks can be used to kill a select group. This meaning a biological agent can be created that would, for example only target animals or only target humans.... [tags: Biological Warfare Research Essays]
2817 words (8 pages)
- The Dangers of Student Drug Testing The United States Supreme Court ruled, in a 5-to-4 decision, that public schools have the right to randomly drug test students participating in extracurricular activities (Knight & Mears, 2007). Those that support random drug testing say that the threat of being selected for random testing deters students from using drugs (Pediatricians oppose, 2015). However, investigators have recorded similar drug use rates in schools with and without drug-testing policies.... [tags: Drug test, Drug addiction, Medicine, High school]
1206 words (3.4 pages)
- The United Kingdom received intelligence in the 1930s, that several nations were involved in biological warfare-related activity. Continued intelligence concluded that these nations may have already acquired this capability. In 1942, the War Cabinet sanctioned biological weapon field testing amid fears of the possibility of a biological or chemical weapons attack against Britain by the Nazis and possibly the Japanese. Anthrax was chosen because it is one of the best known agents of biological warfare and the most feared.... [tags: chemical weapons, war cabinet, anthrax]
1037 words (3 pages)
- There are many countries that are believed to have established programs in offense to biological warfare. Some of the distinguished countries include: Syria, Russia, China, Iran, Israel, Egypt, and North Korea. The easiest way to begin explaining Biological warfare is to consider any living organism and its possible potential to be used as a way of causing harm, injury, and even death to any population of people (Hooker, 2014). Organisms may consist of bacteria, fungi, or viruses. There are also toxins that may be found in any natural environment that have the potential to be used as a biological attack on any one person or population.... [tags: biological warfare, Syria, Russia, Egypt]
913 words (2.6 pages)
- “I am in favor of animal rights as well as human rights. That is the way of a whole human being” (Abraham Lincoln). Throughout the United States over 100 million animals are used for testing different product testing. They are used to teach biology, medical testing, the testing of new drugs, chemical, and cosmetics, and they are used in experiments based off of curiosity. The researches have stopped using just “lab rats” and now use many different breeds of animals such as: mice, rats, cats, dogs, pigs, monkeys, and many more (Collins).... [tags: Animal rights, Animal testing, Primate, Human]
1402 words (4 pages)
- Texting and driving is a deadly issue in today 's generation. Using our cellphones while driving is a damaging habit among teens and adults. This habit caused many catastrophic accidents and deaths. Texting while driving has made the roads unsafe for other drivers. Many states recognize the immense threat resulting from texting and driving and have placed a ban on this epidemic. While many people realize texting and driving is hazardous others believe that the ban is useless and not strong enough of a solution.... [tags: Mobile phone, Text messaging, United States]
1169 words (3.3 pages)
- A Veterinarian Researcher does many tests, and supervises the production of drugs, chemicals, and biological products to better the lives of animals. Some people may think that testing on animals is inhumane, however if we didn 't test on animals the only other option would be on humans. Although testing on animals may have limitations, they are also the closest living thing to humans. Animal testing is a much safer alternative to human testing. Humans have a higher moral status and animals lack human rights.... [tags: Animal testing, Testing cosmetics on animals]
1450 words (4.1 pages)
- What is the future of the military. Many people would argue that drones are the future. Drones have a long history of development tracing back to the America’s Civil War. A large issue that drones had during this time was that they were highly ineffective, this continued until the war in Afghanistan ware started. During the Afghanistan war, the production of the Predator Drone was commissioned. This has been the military’s most successful military asset because of its many different application that the Predator drone has.... [tags: Military, War, History]
1011 words (2.9 pages)
- Is it appropriate for employers to test staff for drugs or alcohol. How reliable are these results. Why should some one invade your privacy. Do drug testing determine your skills level for a job. What do drug testing in the work force prove. The arguments against drug testing are it is excessively invasive, may damage relations between employers and employees, and could hamper the recruitment and retention of good staff. In 1986 the Regan administration recommended a drug-testing program for employers.... [tags: legal issues, drug testing]
954 words (2.7 pages)
- In today’s day and age, technology has drastically increased. People seem to rely on the use of their devices more than anything. Typically, whenever and wherever, everyone is engaged in some form of technology, cell phones in particular. From pagers, to car phones, to initial “flip-phones”, and now to smart-phones, people practically use up most of their daily time with these devices. Nowadays, a lot of people doesn’t even like to have phone conversations…they can deliver their entire thought through a simple text message.... [tags: technology, texting while driving]
930 words (2.7 pages)
- Comparing Characters in Major Barbara and Pygmalion
- True Human Nature Exposed in Lord of the Flies
- James Still's River of Earth: A Neglected American Masterpiece
- Essay on the Importance of Perspective in Gulliver's Travels
- Robert Browning's Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came
- Hypocritical Christianity Exposed in Bernard Shaw's Major Barbara