Outline, and discuss the value of some of the indices which
geographers have used in attempting to define 'a developing country'
Measures of development are defined using a multitude of theories.
Some focus on economic indicators, others on the quality of life. The
economic indicator uses figures from GDP and GNP, which stand for
Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Product respectively. GNP is
the total value, or output of goods and services which become
available during a period of time for consumption or saving within a
country, plus income from foreign investors. This is then measured per
head of the population, which gives GNP per Capita.
This indicator of development is often very difficult to obtain
accurate information about the economy of a country. This especially
would apply to a developing country where much exchange of resources
and tender is difficult to track due to black markets and illegal
trade. Also in the developing countries there is a large amount of
subsistence agriculture. However this agriculture is used for domestic
consumption and so does not get included in GNP. There is a problem as
GNP and GDP are calculated in US dollars and so conversion of
currency, as some countries have artificially high or low currencies.
Finally apart from showing the monetary value of goods and services
produced in a country alone it doesn't tell us anything about the
living standards in the country.
A second indicator is the Physical Quality of Life Index, this has
compiled life expectancy, infant mortality and adult literacy. This
ranges from 0 to 100, and a country with an ...
... middle of paper ...
...g the development of the country, and so
they remain at the first traditional stage of the scale. This model
may give a basis for development but does not show trends with
reality, as the injections that the were experienced in the south have
not installed development.
There are many explanations to the reasons for the North - South
divide, and they all have merits for and against an argument. The
North - South divide has developed as a world phenomenon, due to the
differences in GNP and development. The real reason for this divide
must lie years in the past, and a result of luck in human development.
For example where were the first settlements when the world began,
what were the exact technological opportunities available thousands of
years ago. Why did the North gain the edge over the South from the
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