Comparing the solubility's of copper sulphate, sodium chloride and
Molecular solids (sugar) and ionic solids (salts) both dissolve in
water. However, they both dissolve in different ways.
The intermolecular forces holding molecules of sugar together are
relatively weak so when sugar is placed in water these bonds are
broken and individual C12H22O11 molecules are released into solution.
It takes energy to break bonds between C12H22O11 molecules and it also
takes energy to break the hydrogen bonds in water. These hydrogen
bonds have to be disrupted in order to insert a sugar molecule into
the substance. The energy needed for this is produced by the forming
of bonds between slightly polar sucrose molecules and polar water
molecules. This process works so well between sugar and water that up
to 800g of sugar can dissolve in 1 litre of water.
The positive and negative ions in ionic solids (or salts) are held
together by the strong force of attraction between particles with
opposite charges. When a salt dissolves in water the ions are released
and become associated with the polar solvent molecules. Salts
dissociate with their ions when they dissolve in water.
e.g. NaCl (s) Na+ (aq) + Cl (aq)
There are several factors that will affect solubility between
Temperature - If the solution process absorbs energy then the
solubility will be
increased if there is a temperature increase. If the solution
releases energy (exothermic, i.e. between sugar and water)
... middle of paper ...
...ach salt at different temperatures per
100g of water. For instance if 10g of copper sulphate dissolves in
20cm³ of water then the solubility of copper sulphate at the
temperature you recorded will be 50g per 100g of water.
Once you have worked out all the solubility's at different
you can plot a solubility curve graph. Put solubility per 100g water
on the vertical axis and temperature on the horizontal axis. Plot the
points for each salt and join them with a line of best fit. Now you
should have three separate
solubility curves on the same graph.
Sources of Error
Human error -it is very hard to tell the exact temperature at which
come out of the solution, so mistakes here are probable. To
reduce the chance of error use the same thermometer and the
same person taking the readings.
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