Two Approaches In Psychology

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Two Approaches In Psychology In 1900, Sigmund Freud, a neurologist living in Vienna, first published his psychoanalytic theory of personality in which the unconscious mind played a crucial role. Freud combined the then current cognitive notions of consciousness, perception and memory with ideas of biologically based instincts, to make a bold new theory of psychodynamics. Freud's theory, which forms the basis of the psychodynamic approach, represented a challenge and a major alternative to behaviourism. Freud's theory of personality was based on the assumption that all our behaviour stems from the unconscious processes. He divided the personality into three different parts. The id, the ego and the superego, which are often in conflict. The id operates on the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification. The ego obeys the reality principle and plans for the future. The superego is conscious and makes us aware of moral standards. Freud believed that people have a continuous stream of psychic energy. He called this constant psychic energy the libido, reflecting that the sex drive was a primary life instinct (Eros). Freud later believed we were driven by the death drive (Thantos), which is energy manifest in aggression. If a forbidden act or impulse is repressed, the energy will seek an other outlet, such as in dreams or neurotic symptoms. Freud believed we went through several personality developmental stages in the primary years. He called these stages the psychosexual stages. During each stage the pleasure seeking impulses of the id focus on a particular area of the body. The first year of life, Freud called t... ... middle of paper ... ... Although there are clear divisions in these two approaches. There is no doubt that the perspectives and the research have contributed a great deal to understanding both human and animal behaviours. However, it is worth remembering that psychology is a dynamic science. New theories, notions and experiments are conducted everyday. As technology advances so does the field of psychology. Psychology needs to be studied from all perspectives and an objective frame of mind is needed to attain a greater understanding of ourselves and the world we live in. Bibliography Brain C. (2000) Approaches and Methods. Nelson and Thornes Ltd. UK Jarvis M. (et el) (2000) Angles on Psychology. Stanley and Thornes Ltd. UK Atkinson R.L. (et el) An Introduction to Psychology. (1981) Harcourt Brace College Publishers. USA
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