In the 1830s, as the capitalist system had established and consolidated in Europe, the drawbacks of the capitalist society appeared, and the class contradictions also sharpened day by day. The capitalist mode of production "has left no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than calloused `cash payment'. It has drowned out the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervor, of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical calculation. It has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom --- Free Trade. In one word, for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation."(Marx, Engels 1972: 253). Additionally, the development of natural science and the victory in objecting to the religion and idealism struggle of materialism impelled the writers to break the traditional concept and illusion, and to watch the world and research the social realistic problems with the relatively objective even scientific eyes, so that Realism replaced Romanism to become the principal school of European literary circles. Since at that time the realistic literature was good at ferreting out to capitalist society and criticism, Maxim Gorky called it as "the criticized realism"(Gorky 1978: 110-111).
Chapter II. The History and Background of Critical Realism
From the 1830s, the power of capitalism in both France and Britain got success in their countries. The capitalist regime increasingly got consolidated and developed. In the 1830s, the French July Revolution broke out, and the big b...
... middle of paper ...
...could not dig the contradiction between the proletariat and the propertied class more deeply. The main purpose is still supporting the rotten capitalist system and guaranteeing the benefits of the propertied class. With regard to the technique of expression, it made a point of the details and a depiction of the typical model, took note of plots and the arrangement of composition. In each realm of literature particularly in novel, Critical Realism has done a precious quest, enriched the means the artistic performance, strengthened the depth of thought, and accumulated precious wealth of art. It was the product of the establishment and development of capitalism; it was the artistic record of this period complex history. As Gorky said，the critical realism was the "19th century's chief, most glorious and most profitable" (Gorky 1978: 333-334) literature trend.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” is a literary exaggeration of Gilman’s personal battle with depression that exploits not only the flaws in the perception of depression in the late 1800s but the flaws in that society’s views on women as well. Set up in a diary format, the entry document a three month stay at a secluded mansion where the narrator’s physician husband John, who has told friends and relatives that there is “really nothing the matter with [his wife],” has brought her in on the sabbatical, of sorts, in hopes of treating her “nervous depression” (394, par.10).... [tags: Literary Analysis, Charles Perkins]
1769 words (5.1 pages)
- Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge, a book written by Georg G. Iggers, explores the transformation of modern trends throughout history using the influence of social science. Iggers combines his studies of German and American customs defined by social history to bring us in-depth highlights of pertinent information. Iggers opens the book by talking about a revolutionary way that the Western world was taught about history. Throughout the book he ascertains the changes that take place throughout historiography and the nature of history itself.... [tags: Georg G. Iggers, Historiography in the Twentieth C]
1705 words (4.9 pages)
- An Excerpt from American physician, Charles Caldwell’s: Thoughts on the Original Unity of the Human Race Caldwell, Charles. Rev.ed., Cincinnati: J.A. and U.P. James, 1852 Born in Caswell County, North Carolina on May 14, 1772, Dr. Charles Caldwell was the son of a devout Presbyterian father who served as an elder in the community congregation. Determined to have his son educated and trained in the Presbyterian clerical ministry, Caldwell, Sr. arranged to have Charles sent to boarding school in North Carolina to receive classical instruction in English, Latin, and Greek as well both the Old and New Testaments.... [tags: Essays Papers]
2590 words (7.4 pages)
- As the sun was setting on the 19th century, a new theory, called eugenics was just beginning to rise. Eugenics is the idea that human mental, moral, temperamental and physiological traits are passed down through generations, and that society should attempt to foster the reproduction of those with favorable traits and discourage or eliminate those with less than favorable traits. In the early parts of the 20th century, eugenics was put into practice across the rich world. This increase, not only in popularity but in application is best viewed when part of the greater context of modernity.... [tags: Eugenics]
1047 words (3 pages)
- My research explores political essay in the Spanish and Italian literatures of the second half of the nineteenth century. In particular, I analyze the perception of a “national/supranational conscience” to prove how European liberal thinkers in nineteenth century attempt to build and establish a supranational entity. As “supranational” I intend a shift in international politics - constituted by the agreement among sovereign states - to create common structures of power and identity (Neyer 2012).... [tags: Europe, European Union, 19th century, Spain]
1002 words (2.9 pages)
- For a young women, the idea of motherhood means taking on the ultimate responsibility of caring for a defenseless child in spite of the youth and inexperience. To complicate matters, include the social norms of the 19th century that young women should not have children out of wedlock and a lack of personal independence since most young women do not have livable income and a space to call her own. These norms are enforced upon young women so much that typically their only hope of survival is with the help of a patriarchal figure.... [tags: Sociology, Marriage, Love, 19th century]
1603 words (4.6 pages)
- The Pursuit of Survival in Exchange For Happiness in Charles Dickens's David Copperfield: In Charles Dickens's David Copperfield, there are many lower class citizens who are treated with disdain and even disinterest by every social class that is above them. While the novel is clearly a social commentary on the treatment of the poor in 19th century London, the characters in the novel do very little to remove themselves from their downtrodden lives until they are forced to change. I will argue in this paper that a majority of the characters in David Copperfield change only when change is forced upon them.... [tags: social, change, motivated]
2817 words (8 pages)
- Herman Melville’s Utilization of Bartleby the Scrivener: the Story of Wall Street As a Means of Criticizing Capitalism and Its Crimes Against Humanity Herman Melville's "Bartleby, The Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street" scrutinizes the alienation of labor, the social ideologies and the dehumanizing consequences of the American capitalist society in the 19th century. Bartleby is the main character in the story. The other characters in the story, Ginger Nut, Nippers and Turkey, barely survive their pragmatic enslavement because they have been brainwashed by the ideology of complying and acknowledging their given place in society.... [tags: 19th Century America]
1834 words (5.2 pages)
- Traditionally, women during the 19th century were expected to submit to the patriarch of the house and obediently follow his commands and the commands of society. According to Elaine Fortin, writer of “Early Nineteenth Century Attitudes Toward Women,” society’s expectations of married women included catering to their husbands by caring for the children, performing household chores, and preparing all meals so their husbands could focus all of their attention “on the matters of the world.” To broaden this definition of a wife’s duties during the 19th century, Judy Brady, an activist for women’s rights and renowned author, said women had to satisfy their husbands sexually but refrained from sol... [tags: Gender, Feminism, Jimmy Carter, 19th century]
1263 words (3.6 pages)
- Crouching in the damp, soft grass, a boy was hunched over a gravestone. He was gazing intently at the words inscribed on a particular stone which looked weathered but not enough so that it was unreadable. Several others just like it lay in a row nearby with just enough space for a small body to be buried there. There looked to be about five more small tombstones, but with the heavy fog surrounding the marshy area it was hard to tell where anything truly was. The headstone the boy sat in front of however was large enough to fit an adult man.... [tags: Charles Dickens, Great Expectations]
1689 words (4.8 pages)