Chopin, fatherless at four, was certainly a product of her Creole heritage, and was strongly influenced by her mother and her maternal grandmother. Perhaps it is because she grew up in a female dominated environment that she was not a stereotypical product of her times and so could not conform to socially acceptable themes in her writing. Chopin even went so far as to assume the managerial role of her husband's business after he died in 1883. This behavior, in addition to her fascination with scientific principles, her upbringing, and her penchant for feminist characters would seem to indicate that individuality, freedom, and joy were as important to Chopin as they are to the characters in her stories. Yet it appears to be as difficult for critics to agree on Chopin's view of her own life as it is for them to accept the heroines of her stories. Per Seyersted believes that Chopin enjoyed living alone as an independent writer, but other critics have argued that Chopin was happily married and bore little resemblance to the characters in her stories (150-164).
Some of Chopin's short stories were rejected for publication on mor...
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...ntury readers. "The Story of An Hour", "The Storm", and The Awakening, all held themes that were controversial in a male dominated society. Critics criticized her literary works based not on prejudice and shock, not on the quality of the writing.
Brantley, Jennifer. Feminist Writers . Massachusetts: St. James Press, 1996.
Larsson, Donald. Critical Survey of Short Fiction . Boston: Gale Research 1997.
Pattee, Fred Lewis. A History of American Literature Since 1870 . Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1992.
Pizer, Donald. Dictionary of Literary Biography Volume 12 : American Realists and Naturalists . Boston: The Gale Group, 1982.
Seyersted, Per. The Complete Works of Kate Chopin . Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
Kate Chopin, A Critical Biography . Louisiana: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.
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