The theme of Hawthorne's story is that perfection is impossible and that there is always a price to pay for being vain. We must always be willing to take the good with the bad. When we try to impose our will on Nature we can get destroyed in consequence just as Georgiana was destroyed when the birthmark was removed. Hawthorne says, "The fatal hand had grappled with the mystery of life, and was the bond by which an angelic spirit kept itself in union with a mortal frame. As the l...
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... can be perfect. This can lead to empty and unfulfilling relationships.
With each new technological advance, we try to change nature and society, presumably for the better. Hawthorne is saying that we should not try to alter nature to make it perfect with science and technology. Especially so with innocuous things, like his wife's blemish. Furthermore, the closer we get to perfection, the more obsessed we get with it, and the more we lose sight of the fact that the innocuous blemishes are just that, innocuous blemishes. I don't think that Hawthorne had anything against science in general, even though his descriptions of Aylmer's laboratory were somewhat grotesque. But he is giving us a warning. Do not violate the sanctity of life. This is implied because it is Aylmer's insistence on trying to distort nature which leads to the death of his wife.
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