Parrhesia in 1984 and Animal Farm Essay

Parrhesia in 1984 and Animal Farm Essay

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Parrhesia in 1984 and Animal Farm

Nietzsche: "Where I found a living creature, there I found will to power" (Thus Spake Zarathustra, 1961, 137)

Introduction

"Parrhesia" (fàfÑfáfáf×fâ,,]fÑfw, "Parrhesiastes" (fàfÑfáfáf×fâfÙfÑfâfãf{,,Gfìfwfnand "Parrhesiastic" are all referring to a concept that Michel Foucault first introduced digging them out of the ancient works of Greco-Roman era. He believes that the term was first registered in Euripides literature who lived in the fifth century B.C., and descended down into the fifth century A.D with a flourishing and pervasively popular background. Oxford English Dictionary defines it as ¡§frankness or freedom of speech¡¨. Therefore the English translation of the word is "free speech¡¨, in French "franc-parler¡¨, and in German "Freimuthigkeit." (¡§Discourse and Truth: the Problematization of Parrhesia¡¨. Six lectures given by Michel Foucault at the University of California at Berkley, Oct-Nov. 1983)

Parrhesia is a deserved or granted right given to the speaker or obtained by him for the expression and disclosure of a kind of truth which might contain harm or loss of any sort directed to the addressee who holds always a relatively higher social position compared to the speaker. With regard to this fact parrhesia roots from a powerful resource or power center like authoritative personages, and its winning by the speaker is to gain, at leas...


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Branningan, John. New Historicism and Cultural Materialism.

New York: St. Martin's Press Inc., 1998.

During, Simon. Foucault and Literature. London: Routlege, 1992.

Foucault, Michel. Death and the Labyrinth. London: Athlone Press, 1987.

_____. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Trans. A-Sheridan,

London: Penguin, 1979.

_____. The Foucault Reader. ed. P.Rainbow, Harmondsworth: Penguin,

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_____. The history of Sexuality, Volume 1: An Introduction. Trans. Robert

Hurley, London: Penguin, 1981.

Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. Essex: Longman Group Ltd., 1983.

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