A three-dimensional structure of hemoglobin is determined by X-ray crystallography showed hemoglobin is made up of four polypeptide chains, each of those chains has a very similar three-dimensional structure to the single polypeptide chain in myoglobin. The major type of hemoglobin found in adults (HbA) is made up of two different polypeptide chains: the alpha-chain that consists of 141 amino acids residues, and the beta-chain of 146 residues. Each chain, like that in myoglobin consist of eight alpha-helices and each contains a heme prosthetic group. Therefore, hemoglobin can bind four molecules of oxygen. The four polypeptide chains, two alpha and teo beta, are packed tightly together in a tetrahedral array to form an overall spherically shaped molecule that is held together by multiple noncovalent interactions.
The heme prosthetic group, a protoporphrin IX ring structure with an iron atom ion the ferrous (Fe2+) oxidation state exist in both in myoglobin and he...
... middle of paper ...
...at high altitude, the BPG level increases, allowing Hemoglobin to release O2 more easily. However BPG is absent in most fetal hemoglobin as they lack of beta chain and instead of gamma chain to have a higher oxygen binding affinity so it optimise the transfer of oxygen from the maternal to the detal circulation.
Sickle cell anemia is the most common in hemoglobin mutation diseases due to mutation to beta-blobin gene. The substitution of valine for glutamate at position 6 of the beta chains paces a nonpolar residue on the outside of hemoglobin S. the oxygen affinity and allosteric properties of hemoglubin are virtually unaffected by this changes. However, this alternation markedly reduces the solubility of the deoxygenated but not the oxygenated form of hemoglobin. Thus, sicking occurs when there is a high concentration of the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- A Change in Hemoglobin's Structure Can Disturb Hemoglobin Function Abstract: The fact that a molecule?s structure determines its function can be seen through the oxygen transporter protein, hemoglobin. Hemoglobin can take two forms, oxy state and deoxy state, and each performs a distinct function for the hemoglobin. In a normal hemoglobin, the oxygen binds to a heme group during the oxy state and releases oxygen during the deoxy state. However, when hemoglobin is mutated like in sickle cell anemia, in which the amino acid glumatic acid is substituted with valine in the sixth position of beta subunit; the hemoglobin will not function correctly in the deoxy state.... [tags: Medical Biology]
2502 words (7.1 pages)
- Hemoglobin is the protein found in red blood cells that is responsible for delivering oxygen to the body’s tissues and returning carbon dioxide from the same tissues back to the lungs. It is comprised of four globulin chains that interact to form a tetramer. Hemoglobin has multiple variants, some of which have yet to be studied in depth. Adult hemoglobin (HbA) is comprised of two alpha and beta globulin chains. In sickle cell anemia, a valine replaces a glutamate residue at position six of the beta chain, resulting in hemoglobin S (HbS) (Lieberman).... [tags: Red blood cell, Hemoglobin, Blood transfusion]
1283 words (3.7 pages)
- ... And this is where we will automatically found the implication of the brain to teaching and learning Reading book: the instructional leader and the brain ( Margaret Glick, forwarded by Pat Wolfe) The brain major structure and function • The Human brain is an amazing and complicated organ. In our brain there are some compositions that have specific function; each of the 2 hemispheres specializes in certain ways of intelligent and dealing with the brain surrounding. • It is said that the cortex is the wrapping of the brain, it is where the composed of neurons exist, in our brain there is a structure that controls balances and movements this is called the cerebellum.... [tags: Structure, Function, Organ]
922 words (2.6 pages)
- Hierarchical Structure of Proteins Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition, Dec 18th, U.S. National Library of Medicine, This article intends to educate the reader on how exactly proteins function and their structure and how the various components of proteins work together to create one cohesive unit. This passage focuses on the spatial arrangement of proteins emphasizing its importance as key to understanding how exactly proteins work. In summary, this excerpt went over how proteins are a linear polymer of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.... [tags: function, structure, cohesive, protein]
626 words (1.8 pages)
- Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells that participate in some of the most important biological processes, including cell growth and maintenance, movement and defense. They are complex molecules that consist of one or more chains of amino-acids, have distinct three-dimensional shapes and whose structure and structural dynamics directly influence their specific function. Most proteins have a primary, secondary and tertiary structure, but some of them, like hemoglobin, also have a quaternary structure.... [tags: Proteins, Structures, Functions]
1004 words (2.9 pages)
- Sickle cell anemia is a disease that affects hemoglobin, the molecule in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to cells throughout the body. It is caused by a point mutation in the β-hemoglobin gene that leads to the synthesis of sickle hemoglobin, which distorts and injures the red blood cell (Solovieff, Hartley,Baldwin, Klings, Gladwin, Taylor, & Sebastiani, 2011). The characteristic sickle shape of the red blood cells makes it inadequate to transport oxygen to other cells in the body. Sickle cell anemia can cause severe pain, fatigue, organ damage, stroke, or even death.... [tags: Red blood cell, Sickle-cell disease, Hemoglobin]
1627 words (4.6 pages)
- First labelled an oncogene upon its discovery in 1979, p53 (or TP53 in humans), was correctly re-labelled a tumour suppressor a decade later following the discovery that the gene previously being studied was, ironically, a mutant. Now realised as the most common mutated gene, found in a staggering 50% of cancers, p53 is a keystone in the face of cancer. Its structure and functions continue to be delved into. Amino acids, genome stability, tumour suppression, iPS. Gene Structure 53 kilo-Daltons in size, 11 exons and 10 introns, p53 gene is located on chromosome 17.... [tags: Medical Research]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- ... The backbone of the nucleic acids consists of the interaction between phosphate groups and the hydroxide groups of nucleic acids. These are held together by covalent bonds called phosphodiester bonds. The helix itself is held together by hydrogen bonds. Although hydrogen bonds are weak individually, there are so many of them within DNA that the strands are held tightly together. Without basic chemistry the structure of DNA would be a mystery. The instructions to make a protein are coded by DNA.... [tags: function, protein, products]
599 words (1.7 pages)
- Structure, Function & Enzymes The Circulatory System The human circulatory system, or cardiovascular system, is made up of the heart, blood and blood vessels. The circulatory system has three functions: transportation of substances, protection from disease and regulation of temperature. The heart pumps blood to our body tissues via a network of blood vessels. Humans have a closed circulatory system that is in two parts; the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. The systemic system carries oxygenated blood around the body and deoxygenated blood back to the heart, the pulmonary system carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, and the oxygenated blood from the lungs... [tags: Blood, Heart, Digestion, Circulatory system]
1528 words (4.4 pages)
- The structure and function of the organelles in an animal cell Organelle Structure Function Image Nuclear envelope A double phospholipid bilayer membrane with an enclosed space between them called the nucleoplasm. The outer membrane extends to form the endoplasmic reticulum. Both the membranes are connected by the nuclear pores. They surround the whole nucleus. The main function of the nuclear envelope is to protect the nucleus by preventing the free travel of large or polar molecules into the nucleus due to its phospholipid bilayer membranes.... [tags: Cell, Endoplasmic reticulum, Organelle, Protein]
1594 words (4.6 pages)