Most cells can metabolize a variety of organic molecules to produce ATP. Virtually, all cells metabolize glucose for energy, at least part of the time. Secondly, glucose metabolism is less complex than the metabolism of most other organic molecules.
The formula for complete glucose metabolism is the opposite of photosynthesis. The products of one, is the reactants of another. The formula for glucose metabolism is as follows:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
There are a few basic steps in glucose metabolism. The first stage, glycolysis, does not require oxygen and proceeds in exactly the same way under both aerobic (with oxygen) and anaerobic (without oxygen) conditions.
Glycolysis splits apart a six glucose molecule (six carbon sugar) into three-carbon molecules of pyruvate. The presence of oxygen becomes an issue only in the processes that follow glycolysis. During glycolysis, two ATP molecules are produced. Also, under anaerobic conditions, the pyruvate is usually converted by fermentation into lactate or ethanol.
Cellular respiration is a series of reactions, occurring under aerobic conditions, in which large amounts of ATP are produces. During cellular respiration, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is broken down to CO2 and H2O. The final reactions of cellular respiration require oxygen because oxygen acts as the final acceptor of electrons.
The two molecules of pyruvate produced by glycolysis are transported across both mitochondrial...
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...10 20 .80 .20 .9 .1 1.0 0
10 25 .72 .28 .9 .1 1.0 0
10 30 .63 .37 .9 .1 .9 .1
In conclusion, one can clearly see tat the germinating peas conduct cellular respiration much faster than the dry peas and glass beads and only glass beads. The glass beads had to be used in this experiment to show nonliving organisms do not perform cellular respiration. The colder the temperature after thirty minutes caused the item to conduct cellular respiration much faster.
The substance that begins the series of reactions called the Krebs Cycle is called acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA is a two-carbon fragment and is attached to a four-carbon molecule found in the mitochondria. It forms a six-carbon compound called citrate. In this cycle, oxidation occurs. Some of the energy of oxidation is used immediately to form ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, as in glycolysis.
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