- 6: Option - Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation
- 6.1: The chemical composition of the ocean implies its potential role as an electrolyte
Identify the origins of the minerals in oceans as:
- leaching by rainwater from terrestrial environments
- hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges
Identify - recognise and name
There are 2 major sources of the salts in seawater:
- Leaching by rain and ground water.
- Dissolution of salts by water passing through hydrothermal vents.
LEACHING BY RAIN AND GROUND WATER
- The main ions that are dissolved as rainwater percolates through the soil and makes its way into creeks and rivers are Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO4.
- Water that seeps down into underground aquifers dissolves greater quantities of these ions and under certain conditions (slightly lower pH than normal) picks up significant amounts of Hydrogen Carbonate (by dissolving carbonate)
- Small amounts of nitrate and phosphate are also dissolved: these result from decay of plant and animal matter.
- Although leaching of salts from the ground is a natural process, it has been significantly increased by human activities such as clear felling of forests, land clearing for pastoral pursuits and cultivation for crop growing.
- Some underground aquifers pick up high concentrations of sodium chloride (from the many salt deposits that exist there), and these carry large amounts of salt to the oceans.
- Mid-ocean ridges (often containing fissures or cracks in the rock) exist near the Earth's crust.
- Seawater is able to percolate down these fissures and come close to ...
... middle of paper ...
Different metals and their corrosion rate
Metal Observation at start Observation of metal after 3 days
Aluminium Silver and shiny No change
Tin Silver and shiny No change
Zinc Silver and shiny No change
Iron Silver and shiny A coating of rust formed on the nail
Brass Gold and shiny A coating of corrosion formed on the topside of the tack and some corrosion was seen in the water.
Stainless Steel Silver and shiny No change
Plan and perform a first-hand investigation to compare the effectiveness of different protections used to coat a metal such as iron and prevent corrosion
Compare - show how things are similar or different
Gather and process information to identify applications of cathodic protection, and use available evidence to identify the reasons for their use and the chemistry involved
Identify - recognise and name
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Metals are degraded through the principle of corrosion. Corrosion is defined as “the gradual destruction of materials chemical or electrochemical reaction with their environment.” The most common form of corrosion is the oxidation of iron, which is commonly known as rust, this is orange in colour and is the most common form of corrosion in everyday life. Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a material to a chemically-stable form such as its oxide, hydroxide or sulphide. It is a gradual destruction of materials that are usually metals, by chemical and or electrochemical reaction with their environment.... [tags: Corrosion, Electrochemistry, Aluminium, Oxygen]
746 words (2.1 pages)
- There is no question that humans are the dominant ecological force in today’s society. If humans are the dominant force, would it not make sense that humans have the moral responsibility to protect and care for nature. Nature provides humans with the resources to survive, yet humans are the ones who are slowly destroying it. Fortunately, there are people who do believe that it is their moral responsibility to protect nature. The Conservation Movement provides an excellent example of humans being obedient in the fight for protecting nature.... [tags: Conservation ]
1784 words (5.1 pages)
- Corrosion is the damage of a metal because of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment.”1 The rate of that damage is determined by both the type of metal and the environmental conditions, and most specifically gasses that are in contact with the metal.1 All metals can corrode but the speed of corrosion is different from a metal to another. Pure iron, corrode quickly while stainless steel which has iron and other alloys in its structure is slower to corrode and that’s why used more frequently.... [tags: Corrosion, Metal, Aluminium, Electrochemistry]
978 words (2.8 pages)
- Corrosion is the deterioration of a metal as a result of chemical reactions between it and the surrounding environment, it is also known as rust. Corrosion is a disease to metals. It occurs when a gas or liquid chemically attacks an exposed surface of a metal (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2016). All metals can be corroded. Pure Iron corrodes the fastest. Noble Metals rarely corrode because they are less reactive than most metals (Bell, 2017). There are 10 types of corrosion, General Attack Corrosion, Localized Corrosion, Galvanic Corrosion, Environmental Cracking, Flow-Assisted Corrosion (FAC), Intergranular corrosion, De-Alloying, Fretting corrosion, High-Temperature Corrosion.... [tags: Corrosion, Oxygen, Electrochemistry, Iron, Metal]
873 words (2.5 pages)
- The goal of this report is to focus on the effect that corrosion has on the degradation of steel reinforcement and pre-stressing wires in concrete structures and discuss the ways to protect against corrosion. After a brief review of the role that steel plays in the design of concrete structures, the types of corrosion and its effect on steel is discussed. A summary of reported failures are mentioned followed by the challenges the industry faces in accurately detecting corrosion early on. In addition, corrosion-resistant reinforcement and methods of repairing corrosion damage are examined.... [tags: Corrosion, Concrete, Reinforced concrete, Rebar]
1578 words (4.5 pages)
- Hypothesis: If the presence of salt dissolved in water is increased, then the rate of corrosion will increase. Aim: To compare the rates of corrosion of different nails by adding them to different samples of water, both salt and fresh, and then analysing the rate in which the nails corrode . Metals corrode via a process called redox reactions. Corrosion causes substantial costs to the economy as water pipes and buildings corrode very easily. On average $50 billion is spent annually in an attempt to prevent metals from corrosion.... [tags: Oxygen, Iron, Corrosion, Metal, Zinc, Oxide, Water]
1120 words (3.2 pages)
- The dynamic natural environment and abundant wildlife are the most prominent features of the African continent. Due to its wide variety of biomes ranging from tropical forests to arid deserts, Africa consists of bountiful wildlife diversity. However, because of environmentally harmful human interactions, the variety of biomes is shrinking to all-time lows, which causes wildlife to die out. These detrimental human interactions, particularly livestock overgrazing and desertification, occur partly because the native people who depend on the land for daily life do not realize the potential benefits of wildlife and the unsustainability of their current ways.... [tags: Wildlife Conservation]
2215 words (6.3 pages)
- Canada, with its vast areas of land and abundance of resources, is home to many unique and complex habits that house a number of important species. Environmental policies play a key role in the survival of many endangered animal and plant species and guide conservation efforts in Ontario. In order to protect at risk species and conserve their habitats, government officials need to place greater importance on creating effective policies that target root problems and help address fundamental issues like habitat loss, pollution and human interaction with these species and their environment.... [tags: Wildlife Conservation]
2930 words (8.4 pages)
- Supporting Land and Water Conservation In the United States, non- governmental organizations or NGOs, which refers to an organization that operated independently from the government, represents the environmental movement in political views. The environmental movement is more deeply rooted in politics than science and it is involved in direct action in political campaigns and the protection of the environment. At a White House Event on Wednesday, February 17, 2016, Obama declared, "These are the right steps to take in our environment, but they 're also the right steps to take for our country,” mentioning the economic growth, the job creation, and the support for protecting rural la... [tags: Environmentalism, Conservation movement]
1316 words (3.8 pages)
- 1 INTRODUCTION Corrosion is a natural process, from which a modified material will either break down into a more basic state or be broken down (Gundiler et al, 2000). The process causes undesirable traits in the product which may range from a change in appearance to failure of structures. The effect of corrosion as addressed by Ahmad (2006) costs many billions to governments, as an outcomeindustry has developed many ways to combat corrosion. Combating corrosion can be done though two methods, by design and by inhibition.... [tags: Research Analysis]
1244 words (3.6 pages)