This research paper is a comprehensive look at DoS attacks, including information about their history and development, how to detect them, and what measures should be taken to prevent large amounts of damage.
The first documented DoS activity dates back to 1999. The methods and vulnerabilities are constantly changing, but the result is always the same. The following are some of the more important events:
July-Widespread deployment of DDoS attacks based on a tool known as "trinoo" via various RPC related vulnerabilities. Many of the initial deployments were done manually, with intruders carefully testing and selecting hosts.
August-New DDoS tool known as Stacheldraht found in isolated incidents. Program added encrypted communications between the attacker and host systems.
December-Program known as Tribe Flood Network 2000 (TFN2K) was released and included features designed to make attack traffic more difficult to detect and trace.
February-The now infamous DDoS attacks against websites like Yahoo, eBay, CNN, and eTrade took place, leaving the sites offline for hours.
April-Packet amplification attacks using nameservers became popular.
August-The Trinity DDoS tool...
... middle of paper ...
...extenuating TCP SYN flood attacks.
Sites can never be 100 percent safe if they are connected to the Internet. The ideal system is up to date on patches, has a firewall, is monitored, has all unneeded services disabled, and has up to date antivirus software installed. The ideal site also has an incident response capability and knowledgeable staff. Unfortunately the Internet is a highly interdependent world. There is no silver bullet to stop DoS attacks or vaccine to prevent them, but increasing awareness is the first step to successfully combating the problem.
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