Essay about The Arctic Voyages of Martin Frobisher, 1576-1578

Essay about The Arctic Voyages of Martin Frobisher, 1576-1578

Length: 1915 words (5.5 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

On 17 June 1576 the thirty ton bark Gabriel, accompanied by the smaller bark Michael and a tiny pinnace, set sail from London to seek out a north-west sea passage to the treasures of the Orient. The three small vessels, whose total complement was only thirty four men, were commanded by Martin Frobisher. Although the purpose of the voyage was to find a alternate sea route to the east the two subsequent voyages that quickly followed were a prelude to the establishment of English sovereignty in North America. What were the factors that initiated the voyage? Who were the key players in the enterprise and what was the eventual outcome of these three voyages? This essay will attempt to answer those questions.

In 1576 Queen Elizabeth I had been on the throne of England for eighteen years. She, her Privy Council and the merchants of London were extremely jealous of the riches poring into the coffers of Spain and Portugal. Beginning in the 1420's Portugal, followed by Spain in the 1490's, had greatly expanded the known world through marine exploration. As result of this exploration those countries were reaping the financial benefits in trade and bullion. By the mid 1550's England had had some small success in expanding her trade horizons. Richard Chancellor, sailing north east from England, had reached the mouth of Russia's Dvina River in the White Sea and had traveled by sled to Moscow where he was able to establish trade relations with the Russians. This led to the establishment of "The Company of Merchant Adventurers of England." The Muscovy Company - as it was commonly called, was given exclusivity with regard to the right to explore and trade to all points northwest, north and northeast of England.

Michael Lok, a London merchant...


... middle of paper ...


... was no more fame or fortune to be had in being connected to the enterprise, Frobisher accepted employment in the Queen's service.

Although Frobisher's gold mines were soon forgotten his three voyages to the Arctic sparked not only interest in a north west passage to the Orient but also the idea of English sovereignty over northern North America. Over the next three hundred years British exploration and trade gradually penetrated Arctic Canada and Britain's right to possession of the vast area was accepted by other nations. In 1880 British sovereignty over the area was passed to Canada. In 1999 the Territory of Nunavut was established returning a measure of sovereignty to the descendents of the original inhabitants - the Inuit. In the very area that Frobisher had claimed for his Queen four hundred years before lies the capital of Nunavut - Iqaluit.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Physics of the Arctic Essay

- The Arctic is a strange and unusual place where nature still rules with and icy fist. In the land of the "high noon moon", the extreme cold has a strange effect on the environment, the people, and even everyday objects that we take for granted act different. Ice rules the land and shapes it to it's will. Layers of cold air change a normal scene into a wonderland of color and mystery. Normal, everyday items take on unusual characteristics in the sub-zero climate. Ice wedges are structures where water has filled a crack or hole in the ground and froze over the winter....   [tags: physics arctic]

Free Essays
495 words (1.4 pages)

Opponents to Drilling in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Essay

- “The conversation of our natural resources and their proper use underlines almost every other problem in our national life,” Theodore Roosevelt. Americans’ dependence upon petroleum-based energy sources has required the United States to consider a variety of options to fulfill [the] ever-increasing energy needs, even drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge [ANWR] (Smith). The controversial question on whether or not to drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge reserve has been in battle since its establishment....   [tags: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Resources]

Strong Essays
1228 words (3.5 pages)

The Global Climate Crisis Should Pay A Visit At The Arctic Essay example

- “Those searching for unmistakable evidence of the global climate crisis should pay a visit to the Arctic. The Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. The average annual temperature in Barrow, at the northern-most tip of Alaska, has increased 4.5 degrees Fahrenheit in the last 50 years” (Noblin, n.d.). Polar bears have been threatened in the past by unregulated commercial and sports hunting in the 1960’s and 1970’s. They were being wiped out quickly with modern methods of hunting, including aircraft, and were facing a huge loss in their population....   [tags: Polar bear, Pinniped, Arctic shrinkage]

Strong Essays
1227 words (3.5 pages)

The Voyages Of Christopher Columbus Essay

- Amidst the numerous pivotal events in history the voyages of Christopher Columbus impacted not only the Americas, but the world by initiating the process of globalization. Columbus’ voyages not only brought new people to the Americas, but initiated the genocide of indigenous people. The voyages also brought new crops to Europe that increased the population while also providing new crops to the Americas that would fundamentally change the economy of the American tropics for centuries to come. The voyages also brought about the introduction of diseases that would have devastating effects on the Americas....   [tags: Christopher Columbus, Spain, Latin America]

Strong Essays
2107 words (6 pages)

The Voyages of Christopher Columbus Essay

- The most well known voyage by Christopher Columbus occurred in 1942, when he discovered formerly unidentified western lands of Europe, which were the Americas. Following this discovery, he went back to Spain where he received commission to a bigger fleet. Overall, he went on four journeys to these new worlds, with each one being interesting and important in its own right (Cohen, 1969). Similar to most educated men during his time, Columbus was familiar with the world being circular and shared the concept that a ship could ultimately get to the Far East from the other direction....   [tags: discovery of the New World by the Europeans]

Strong Essays
1724 words (4.9 pages)

The Arctic's Climate Essay

- The Arctic climate is changing rapidly and the United States government is unprepared for the ensuing expansion of open water. The Quaternary Science Reviews supports the first point of my opening statement with the following quote, “Observations during the past several decades document substantial, accelerating retreat and thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Based on climate simulations, the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free as early as around 2040” (Polyak et al., 2010). I hope to support the second point of my opening statement through the efforts of this project by using, “the eight structures that define thinking” (Elder & Paul, 2007, p....   [tags: environment, climate]

Strong Essays
1268 words (3.6 pages)

Arctic basing Essay

- ENVIRONMENT, MISSION AND ORGANIZATION Establishing a base of operations for security forces in the Arctic will not be an easy task. Ooperational challenges in the Arctic are daunting: Temperatures below -55 degrees Celsius are common in wintertime. Immense, desolate expanses provide no life support. The region is enveloped in a darkness that lasts for months. The Arctic is a maritime environment that provides no support or infrastructure for navigation aids, communications, logistics, maintenance or even search and rescue (SAR.) Weather conditions are so extreme that Arctic nations have little notion of what is happening in the Arctic Ocean....   [tags: Environment, Mission, Organization]

Strong Essays
1293 words (3.7 pages)

Arctic Drilling Essay

- The Arctic Circle is a snowy paradise that harbors diverse species and beautiful landscapes. It also happens to be home to an estimated thirteen to twenty-five percent of the world’s undiscovered crude oil, averaging out to about 90 billion barrels of oil (Gerkens, 2014). Alaska in particular is home to one of the largest sources of oil in the United States. Underneath the barren land and icy waters is thought to be over 412 billion barrels of oil and 132 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A majority of these fossil fuels are located in North Slope, Alaska and in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas off the coast of Alaska....   [tags: snowy paradaise, alaska, oil]

Strong Essays
1510 words (4.3 pages)

The Arctic Tundra Essay

- The Arctic Tundra The Tundra is located in the northern regions of North America, Europe, Asia, as well as a few regions of Antarctica. The Tundra is the second largest vegetation zone in Canada. It can be divided clearly into three different sections: the High Arctic Tundra, the Low Arctic Tundra and the Alpine Tundra. The latter Alpine Tundra occurs in higher altitudes such as mountains whereas the first two are mainly based in plains and lowlands of some kind. The Low Arctic Tundra is the transmission point to the north....   [tags: Antarctica Nature Wildlife Environmental Essays]

Free Essays
1356 words (3.9 pages)

arctic oil Essay example

- The Arctic Circle Ditions enclose roughly the same territory, which is somewhat larger than the region bounded by the Arctic Circle, and will be used as the basis for this article.The largest Arctic tundra areas are in Canada, Russia, Greenland (Kalatdlit-Nunat), Scandinavia, Iceland and Alaska.Climate and Land Formation Tundra climate is characterized by harsh winters, low average temperatures, little snow or rainfall, and a short summer season (Goudie 1993). The arctic tundra, in particular, is influenced by permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the ground....   [tags: essays research papers fc]

Free Essays
1127 words (3.2 pages)