WHO CAN CATCH A LIAR?’, Ekman and O’Sullivan, 1991. Essay

WHO CAN CATCH A LIAR?’, Ekman and O’Sullivan, 1991. Essay

Length: 1450 words (4.1 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

WHO CAN CATCH A LIAR?’, Ekman and O’Sullivan, 1991.

What is the definition of lying or indeed deception? Well deception
can be defined in many ways, but it was termed by Vrij (Vrij, 2000,
p.6) as a successful or unsuccessful deliberate attempt, without
forewarning, to create in another a belief, which the communicator
considers to be untrue.

Telling lies is a daily life event, which varies in quite complex ways
depending on the situation the person is in and the person being lied
to. People lie for all kinds of reasons. However half the lies are
either self–orientated, and are therefore intended to make the liar
appear better or to gain personal advantage (DePaulo et al., 1996).
Self– orientated lies consist of people lying in order to avoid
punishment, to make a positive impression on others or to protect
themselves. Some lies are other–orientated, to make another person
feel better or for another’s benefit.

How can you tell if someone is lying to you? People generally believe
that nonverbal cues to deception exist and they know what these cues
are; but how accurate are people at detecting lies?

In laboratory studies concerning detection of deception, observers are
given videotaped or audiotaped statements of various people who are
either lying or telling the truth. After each statement the
participant is asked to judge whether the statement are true or false.

In most studies reported, people have not been very good at judging
when people are lying. Average accuracy in detecting deceit has rarely
been above 60% with 50% being chance and most people have performed
below 50%.

Studies revealed that in three separate experiments conducted by Kraut
and Poe (1980) DePaulo and Pfeifer (1986) and Ko...

... middle of paper ...

...ussed in the appropriate section of the study, therefore this
could be an area that could be further explored in the future.

On the whole in conclusion, the study has established the extent to
which people are able to detect lies by observing physiological
responses. Mistakes in lie detection are inevitable, but perhaps with
the correct training, experience and motivation we may become
specialists in detecting lies. But is this possible?.

In my opinion in both theoretical and practical terms; this is a sound
work on a vital subject. Although room for further research is needed.


Aldert Vrij, (2002) ‘Telling and Detecting Lies’ chapter 4, in Nicola
Brace and Helen Westcott (ed) ‘Applying Psychology’ The Open

Journal article – Paul Ekman and Maureen O’Sullivan (1991) ‘Who Can
Catch A Liar’ Vol.46, no 9, pp.913-930

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on 1991: An Amazing Year!

- History is replete with examples of the rise and fall of once great empires. December 1991 saw the end of a two super power world with the fall of the Soviet Union. In December, “as the world watched in amazement, the Soviet Union disintegrated into fifteen separate countries” (Cold War Museum). The United States was overjoyed as its enemy was, “brought to its knees, thereby ending the Cold War which had hovered over these two superpowers since the end of World War II” (Cold War Museum)....   [tags: The Year 1991]

Free Essays
2031 words (5.8 pages)

The Paradox Of The Liar Paradox Essay example

- Traced all the way back to six centuries before christ, the Liar Paradox is an argument that arrives at a contradiction when assuming the principle of bivalence. The principle of bivalence states that a declarative statement must have only one truth value; the declarative statement is either true or false, not both (Bernecker). The classical liar paradox is composed of paradoxical statements, like: “This sentence is false,” and “L1 : L1 is false” (Bernecker). If the statement “L1 is false” is true, then “L1” is false, because the first premise says, “L1 is false” (Bernecker)....   [tags: Truth, Logic, Liar paradox, Paradox]

Powerful Essays
1497 words (4.3 pages)

Being involved in War Has Made Us Insane: The Book "Catch 22" Essay

- William Shakespeare, the great playwright and dramatist, once wrote, “Though this be madness, yet there is method” (“Thinkexist.com”). A person may act crazy, say insane things, and commit mad acts, but the person themselves may not truly be derailed. Often, people’s seemingly irrational behaviors could be judged reasonable if put into the correct context. In Catch-22 nearly all the men act crazy, but are reasonably sane at the same time. Most of them believe that war is insane, and being involved in the war has made them all insane too....   [tags: catch 22, war, military,]

Powerful Essays
1778 words (5.1 pages)

Catch 22 by Joseph Heller Essay

- There was dead silence in his office, the kind of silence that should never be disturbed. The look of determination on his face was uncanny. Every single move he made was precise and delicate. Colonel Cathcart slowly rolled a few inches away from his desk in his chair, just enough so he could stand up. At a snail's pace, he stood up never taking his eyes off his masterpiece. Cathcart's hand was shaking immensely as he lifted the playing card up to complete his beloved tower. ‘KNOCK KNOCK KNOCK' Cathcart's body jumped in surprise, causing his hand to jolt at the sound of the noise....   [tags: Joseph Heller Catch 22]

Free Essays
1891 words (5.4 pages)

Essay on Catch 22 by Joseph Heller

- Catch 22 America has been involved in the cold war for years. The fear of communism is ruining lives. The country moves closer and closer to the Korean war. Joseph Heller’s Catch 22 is published. 1963- College students are seen wearing army fatigues with “Yossarian” name tags. Reports are being made about a “Heller Cult”. Bumper stickers are manufactured which read, “Better Yossarian then Rotarian”. The phrase “Catch 22” has surfaced meaning a “no win situation” it is now an excepted word in the English dictionary....   [tags: Joseph Heller’s Catch 22]

Powerful Essays
860 words (2.5 pages)

Essay about The Quandary Explored by Yossarian in Catch 22

- The Quandary Explored by Yossarian in Catch 22 Heller's principle emphasis is on the internal struggle with conflicting values and the characters' evolution. He creates a quandary that Yossarian explores throughout the novel, and establishes Yossarian's world as one turned upside down by war. After exploring this chaotic condition and the mess it creates on people's values, Yossarian finally arrives at his decision to withdraw from the conflict. In the first half of the war, Yossarian runs....   [tags: Catch 22 Joseph Heller Literature Essays]

Powerful Essays
1179 words (3.4 pages)

Humour and Conflict in the scene in which Rita and Barbara Clash from Billy Liar

- Humour and Conflict in the scene in which Rita and Barbara Clash from Billy Liar Task: ‘Explain how both humour and conflict are created in the scene in which Rita and Barbara clash’ Billy liar is set in 1959, at the time of the teenage rebellion and the start of the swinging sixties. This is reflected in the play because there are still some ‘old Fashioned’ People around i.e. Barbara, which tells me that the ‘new age’ hasn’t affected some people yet. And there are also people like Liz who are really taking to the new style of living....   [tags: Billy Liar Keith Waterhouse Plays Essays]

Free Essays
1129 words (3.2 pages)

Literary Analysis of Joseph Heller's Catch 22 Essay

- Literary Analysis of Joseph Heller's Catch 22 Laughing in the face of war and death, literally, is one of the things that make the novel Catch-22 by Joseph Heller such an intriguing and original story. It was written in 1961, a time when, due to the fighting of the Second World War, all war novels were written with a dark and dreary tone, while still trying to continue the pre-conceived romantic notions about war. However, Joseph Heller strips away all of the romantic pretense, and pulling heavily on his own Air Force experience during WWII, presents war in its most raw, un-censored version....   [tags: Heller Joseph Catch 22 Analysis]

Powerful Essays
1786 words (5.1 pages)

Themes of Slaughterhouse 5 by Kurt vonnegut and Catch 22 by Joseph Heller

- Themes of Slaughterhouse 5 by Kurt vonnegut and Catch 22 by Joseph Heller In the books, Slaughter House 5 by Kurt Vonnegut and Catch 22 by Joseph Heller there are many themes that at first don’t appear to be related but once given a closer look have striking similarities. Both books are about one mans experience through World War II, one being a fighter pilot and another being a soldier. Each man is known as an anti-war hero. They do not agree with the war and do not find it appropriate to fight for it....   [tags: Slaughterhouse 5 Catch 22 Literature Essays]

Powerful Essays
1423 words (4.1 pages)

Essay about Catch Me

- The movie ‘Catch Me If You Can’ is based on the true-life story of Frank Abagnale. He was the youngest person to ever be put onto the FBI’s most wanted list. The movie tells his story. Frank Abagnale impersonated many people and forged many documents (many to include paychecks) over the period of 5 years. He was said to be the world’s greatest liar. Some of the documents that he forged included, but were not limited to, false identification cards, birth certificates, and of course paychecks. He got into the forgery business by learning from his ‘conman’ father....   [tags: essays research papers]

Powerful Essays
578 words (1.7 pages)