While literary critics do attempt to elaborate or develop ideas articulated by Karl Marx, it is important and necessary to make a distinction between Marx's specific socio-economic and political agenda and the body of literary theory which emerged years later. Marxist literary criticism proceeds from the fundamental philosophical assumption that "consciousness can never be anything else than conscious existence...Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life" (Marx 568-9). Marxist critics use this challenge to the notion of an innate, prefigured, individual human nature to reexamine the nature of creative or literary authority.
Power seems to reside outside or beyond the bounds of humanity. Rather than dipping into a world of universal forms or expressing a subjective interior, artists and their work are determined by the web of power relations in which they exist; literature is thus inescapably tethered to a continuum of socio-political concerns. Hegemony is the term most often used by Marxist critics to describe this continually renegotiat...
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- The philosopher Karl Marx once said, “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, but, on the contrary, their social being that determines their consciousness” (Marx). Marx argues that social circumstances determine one’s value and belief. Therefore, in his short story “Winter Dreams”, F. Scott Fitzgerald supports this Marxist theory by exposing that the proletariat is oppressed by the bourgeoisie’s ideology that the goal of life lies in status and material success, wrongly leading the middle-class to pursue inappropriate goals and ultimately to lose personal identity as developed through vivid imagery, starting with depicting a proletarian’s dream, followed by his succes... [tags: Literature, Winter Dreams]
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- Mysteries have always held great fascination for the human mind, not least because of the aura that surrounds them and the realm of the Unknown into which they delve. Coupled with the human propensity of being particularly curious about aspects which elude the average mind, the layer of intrigue that glosses over such puzzles makes for a heady combination of the literary and the popular. In the canon of detective fiction worldwide, no detective has tickled the curious reader’s imagination and held it in thrall as much as Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes.... [tags: mystery, literary criticism]
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- Faced with the segregation of white and blacks; rich and poor, communist and anti communists, the intellectuals and illiterate, the “haves” and the “have nots”, Richard Wright, a black boy from down south struggles to prove himself to not only his family and the rest of the world, but himself. Richard struggles with a black culture that tries to reshape him according to what it believes he should be which is less bookish, more obedient, and more religious. In the book Black Boy; by Richard Wright, Wright reveals a fundamental insight into human nature: that there is nothing that really separates people except for what they separate themselves by.... [tags: Literary Analysis]
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- Marxism consists of the political and economic theories of Karl Marx, in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social change in Western societies. Marxism applies to the novel Great Expectations in many ways. Dickens uses Pip’s complex and altering relationships with Estella, Joe, and Magwitch to show the subjugation of the working-class from the privileged. Estella is raised in a prosperous household and is judgmental of Pip because he is from the working class. She insults his appearance when she says, "But he is a common laboring boy.... [tags: Literary Analysis]
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- Marxist Criticism Introduction Marxist literary criticism is based upon the political and economic theories of the German philosopher Karl Marx. In works like The German Ideology and The Communist Manifesto, written with Frederick Engels , Marx proposes a model of history in which economic and political conditions determine social conditions. Marx and Engels were responding to social hardships stemming from the rise of capitalism. Appropriately, their theories are formulated specifically to analyze how society functions in a state of upheaval and constant change.... [tags: Karl Marx Marxism Essays]
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- It has been said, From the hour of the invention of printing, books, and not kings, were to rule the world. Weapons forged in the mind, keen-edged, and brighter than a sunbeam, were to supplant the sword and battle-axe. Books. lighthouses built on the sea of time. Books. by whose sorcery the whole pageantry of the world's history moves in solemn procession before our eyes. From their pages great souls look down in all their grandeur, undimmed by the faults and follies of earthly existence, consecrated by time (Whipple 386).... [tags: Literature]
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- A Marxist reading enables the critic to see Catch 22, by Joseph Heller, as not simply an anti-war novel but a satirical representation of the absurdity of American bureaucracy and capitalism, and thus shows the extent to which the situation at the time was of concern to Heller. The novel takes place in Italy during World War II and the novel follows Yossarian who is a part of an air squadron yet Heller confirms that “The elements that inspired the ideas came to me from the civilian situation in this country in the 1950s”.... [tags: Joseph Heller's novel analysis]
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- Finding Meaning In My Favourite Text. Music is an inevitable part of a human life, and you may not be “human” if you say you don’t like or listen to music- at least one type must appeal to you. I sometimes feel like music is in my genes, and I am an appreciator of music, as long as the good beat goes with some great lyrics, and that was why Paapa Kwaku hMensa’s “Richest Man”, which tells the unheard story of the poor man who is clearly fed up with the arrogance of the rich man, “called out” to me.... [tags: hegemony, economic state]
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- Feminist Criticism and Wonder Woman Wonder Woman. To get a better picture of just who Wonder Woman is, I checked out some of her many websites last night and found a surprisingly rich archive. Wonder Woman, in fact, has a complicated, even schizophrenic, heritage. She’s been portrayed by such diverse actors as the perky Cathy Lee Crosby and Lynda Carter, who endowed her with both a competent, working woman aura and a dose of eroticism (Lynda Carter, I discovered, is the subject of a lot of Wonder Woman fetishist erotica on the Internet these days).... [tags: Feminism Feminist Women Criticism]
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- A) Write a critical commentary on key aspects of either Act 2 Scene 2 or Act 3 Scene 5. B) Indicate briefly how you would read this extract using one of the approaches studied so far in Peter Barry’s Beginning Theory other than the liberal humanist approach. ACT 2 SCENE 2 Part A Act Two, Scene Two of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is a romantic and poetically lavish scene. This emotionally abundant section of the play contains the love passages and fanciful imaginings of the young lovers. But while it is eloquent and delightful, it is also essential in detailing certain character developments, drawing attention to recurring themes and setting the tone of the remaining play.... [tags: William Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet]
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