Essay on Preventing Hypertension Of Black Female Adolescents

Essay on Preventing Hypertension Of Black Female Adolescents

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Preventing Hypertension in Black Female Adolescents


Hypertension
Hypertension (HTN) is the “sustained elevated blood pressure (BP)” of systolic BP above 140mmHg and/or diastolic BP above 90mmHg (Cash & Glass, 2010, p. 156; McPhee & Papadakis, 2014). There are often no symptoms of hypertension the majority of the time (Cash & Glass, 2010). Possible signs and symptoms include:
• Headaches
• Retinopathy
• Organ- specific complaints with end organ damage (advanced disease)
• Confusion
• Nausea and vomiting (encephalopathy)
There are two classifications of hypertension: primary essential hypertension and secondary hypertension (Basile & Bloch, 2015; McPhee & Papadakis, 2014). Essential HTN (EHTN) is a diagnosis found in 95% of hypertensive adult patients resulting from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. EHTN occurs on 10-15% of Caucasians and 20-30% of black adults in the United States (US). There are many factors that exacerbate hypertension which include: age, sleep apnea, obesity, physical activity level, smoking, excessive alcohol intake, increased salt intake, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) or oral contraceptive use and low potassium intake (McPhee & Papadakis, 2014). Many of these factors can be easily treated or modified to improve BP.
Secondary hypertension occurs in 5% of adult patients related to a specific cause such as pregnancy, drugs, sleep apnea, renovascular disease, thyroid disease, etc. (McPhee & Papadakis, 2014). One must also consider “white coat hypertension” or increased BP related to nervousness or stress during medical visits but does not meet diagnostic criteria for HTN based on home or ambulatory monitoring (Basile & Bloch, 2015).
Hypertension for children and adolescents ...


... middle of paper ...


...(Burns et al., 2013, p. 696). Because HTN and the effects of high blood pressure and obesity may predict the trajectory of the disease process into adulthood it is important to address prevention in the adolescent.



Background and Significance of cHTN
incidence
prevalence
precursors
consequences


statistical info to introduce topic of HTN in
-local (county)/ clinical
-state
-national

Thesis statement



How do we prevent HTN in black female adolescents?
Keywords:
Prevent- risk factors, etiology, avoid, decrease eliminate
HTN- elevated BP, high BP, abnormal
Black- African American
Female- girls, women
Adolescent- youth, teenagers, young adult, age 13-18, 14-21


CINHAL Search:
( "risk factors" or prevent* or etiology or avoid or eliminate or decrease ) AND ( hyperten* or (high or elevated or abnormal "blood pressure") ) AND ( black or "african american" )





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