Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer for women yet it is the most common cancer of the reproductive system. According to the CDC in 2010 11,818 women in the United States were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 3,939 women in the United States died from cervical cancer. The most common type is squamous cell carcinoma. Human papilloma virus, otherwise known as HPV, is known to cause cervical abnormalities and has been linked to cervical cancer.
Some signs and symptoms of cervical cancer are abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge and pelvic pain and pressure. Cervical cancer is preventable with regular screening tests. One test is a Pap test sometimes also called a Pap smear. This test looks for precancerous cells that may if not treated lead to cervical cancer. Pap tests should be performed on all women 21 to 65 years old. According to Fundamentals of Nursing, screenings should begin 3 years after having vaginal sex but no later than 21. There should be an annual pelvic examination along with a Pap test. After the age of 30 if a woman has had 3 consecutive normal tests they can be screened every one to three years. If there are any risk factors screenings should continue more frequently. (Potter-Perry, 2013) These only tests for cervical cancer, it does not screen for other gynecological cancers. Pap tests if negative only need to be repeated once every three years. Preparation for a pap smear includes no douching, no tampons, no sex, no birth control creams, foams or jelly and no medicinal cream in the vagina. Pap test results can take upwards of three weeks. Sometimes there are false positive therefore if you have a positive result it does not definitely mean you have cancer. The standard test once ab...
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...e doesn’t give enough information to be swayed to get the vaccine
HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil® VIS . (2013, May 17). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Department of Health and Human Services: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html
King, S. (2004). Therapeutic cancer vaccines: an emerging treatment option. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing 8, 271-278.
Pellico, L. H. (2013). Focus on Adult Health Medical-Surgical Nursing. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Potter-Perry. (2013). Fundamentals of Nursing. St. Louis: Elsevier.
Pountney, D. (2008). Vaccinating against cancer. Cancer Nursing Practice, 10-12.
Schiffman, M., Castle, P. E., Jeronimo, J., Rodriguez, A. C., & Wacholder, S. (2007). Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. The Lancet, 890-907.
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