The Prefrontal Cortex and Decision-Making Essay

The Prefrontal Cortex and Decision-Making Essay

Length: 1356 words (3.9 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Strong Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

According to Price, Rosenbloom, & Schmahmann (2012) “The importance of this cognitive process is evidenced by the fact that approximately 40% of deaths results from decision-making deficits at the most basic level of self-regulation” (p. 266). Through my chosen articles I found that the Prefrontal Cortex is the major portion of the brain that is responsible for decision-making. To understand the decision-making process better the prefrontal Cortex can be divided into three regions: the Orbitofrontal Cortex, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, and the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. Each of these areas contributes to different decision-making sub-processes, which in turn make up the distinctive aspects of the decision-making process. In addition to the anatomical structures involved in decision making there have been recent findings that the neurotransmitter dopamine may play an active role in the decision-making process in its’ association with the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Nucleus Accumbens. Through cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections these areas are dependent on each other when making a decision (Price et al., 2012, p. 267)
The Orbitofrontal Cortex is located on the superior portion of the orbit, on top of the ventral surface of the frontal lobes. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and the Frontal Polar Cortex connect with the Orbitofrontal Cortex to create the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. In the decision-making process the Orbitofrontal Cortex and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex use reward values and affective information to make decisions. Acting as an integration center for emotion and reward processing the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex is responsible for the emotional experience associated with the gain...


... middle of paper ...


...cting options and monitors possible outcome information. As you can see each system contributes uniquely to the many different processes involved in decision-making. Although studies have found that the neurotransmitter dopamine is important in the decision-making process, there are no definite results that prove this theory.



Works Cited

Krawczyk, D. C. (2002) Contributions of the prefrontal Cortex to the neural basis of human decision making. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 26 (2002) 631-664.

Price, B. H., Rosenbloom, M. H., Schmahmann, J. D. (2012). The functional neuroanatomy of decision-making. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 24 (3), 266-277.

Assadi, S. M., Pantelis, C., Yucel, M. (2009). Dopamine modulates neural networks involved in effort-based decision-making. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review. 33 (2009) 383-393

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex Essay

- Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is involved in a wide variety of functions. It is known as the area of the brain which has “executive control”, taking input from other areas of the brain and combining and applying those functions (Kalat 2004). Lesions to the prefrontal area can greatly impair overt behavior of an inflicted individual. These deficits are dependent upon the severity of the lesion and the specific region of the prefrontal cortex in which the lesion resides (ventrolateral, dorsolateral, orbitofrontal, and anterior prefrontal)(Eslinger 2003)....   [tags: Neurology Health Medical Essays]

Strong Essays
1521 words (4.3 pages)

The Anatomy Of The Cortex Essays

- The cortex is a layer sometimes mentioned as the grey matter. The cortex covers about 1.5mm to 5mm of the outer most portions of both the cerebrum and cerebellum. The cerebral cortex comes from the section that covers the cerebrum. The cerebral cortex equates to about two thirds the mass of the brain it is cover with folded bulges called gyri that make deep valleys called sulci. This increases the surface area of the cortex and allows more and faster neuron processing. This part of the brain is split into two hemispheres and is consider the most complex and developed part of them brain being the most recently evolved section of the brain....   [tags: Cerebrum, Frontal lobe, Cerebral cortex, Brain]

Strong Essays
1525 words (4.4 pages)

Prefrontal Cortex Lesions from Neurosurgeon and Patient Perspective Essay

- Prefrontal Cortex Lesions from Neurosurgeon and Patient Perspective In this paper, I will discuss lesions of the prefrontal cortex from the perspective of the practice of neurosurgery (in particular, the sub-field of psychosurgery) and then I will consider some studies that look at the implications of lesions to the prefrontal cortex to the brain and behavior, from the perspective of the patient with the lesion. Initially, I will start with the history and explanation of psychosurgery....   [tags: Surgery Surgical Health Essays]

Free Essays
2784 words (8 pages)

Prefrontal Cortex Essay

- Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is the most anterior portion of the frontal lobe. It responds mostly to stimuli signaling the need for movement, however it is also responsible for many other specialized functions. It receives information from all sensory systems and can integrate a large amount of information (Kalat 2004). Studies have shown that the prefrontal cortex is responsible for working memory. Working memory is defined as "the information that is currently available in memory for working on a problem" (Anderson 2005)....   [tags: Neurology Brain Medical Essays]

Free Essays
1160 words (3.3 pages)

Technology As A Source Of Entertainment For Toddlers Essay

- Many people assume that the use of technology as a source of entertainment for toddlers can be damaging to their health by delaying brain development and leading to attention deficit/hyperactive disorder, and it can, if not used properly. The main issue with the use of tablets and smartphones are that they are not being used properly. It is true that if you sit your 2 year old in front of a T.V. for hours while you do work that your kid will have attention problems and will be hard to control, but this should not be the intended purpose or use of technology....   [tags: Brain, Psychology, Infant, Prefrontal cortex]

Strong Essays
1012 words (2.9 pages)

Emotions And Decision Making Essay

- A recently published article seems to lend new information as to the way in which emotions influence our decision-making process. While emotions and reasoning are considered inherently separate by some, new experiments are challenging that perception. A series of studies done by experimental psychologists now show us that emotion plays a very natural role in decision-making situations. The experiments, ranging in type from neuroimaging to simple classical conditioning, suggest that emotions can affect everything from simple judgments of other people to severe behavioral disabilities seen for example in sociopathic individuals....   [tags: essays research papers]

Strong Essays
826 words (2.4 pages)

Neurological Underpinnings of Psychopathy Essays

- Prefrontal Cortex Another highly implicated area in psychopathy is the prefrontal cortex which helps monitor ongoing behavior, tie emotional learning to decision making, and making conjectures about consequences to actions (Anderson & Kiehl, 2012). Damage here can lead to impulsive behavior combined with poor judgment. Anderson & Kiehl (2012) also found not only through functioning imaging but in a prisoner’s dilemma task involving complicated decisions about working together socially that individuals with psychopathy showed lower Orbitofrontal cortex activity when deciding whether to obey and lower dorsolateral prefrontal activity when deciding to engage in anti-social behavior than normal...   [tags: agression reaction, psychopaths, prefrontal cortex]

Strong Essays
1773 words (5.1 pages)

The Field Of Neurodevelopmental Criminology Essay example

- In the field of neurodevelopmental criminology, violence has been developed as a multifactorial behavior of human beings. According to Fischman there is a clear link to criminal behavior and the brain, but this can only be used as a predictor of violence not a determinant (2011). Adoption studies have allowed scientists and neurocriminologists to study the effect of environment on individuals with similar or identical genetic patterns. Most studies link magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results to smaller amygdala regions of the brain (Fischman, 2011; ABC News)....   [tags: Brain, Cerebrum, Crime, Prefrontal cortex]

Strong Essays
1295 words (3.7 pages)

Decision-Making Model Analysis Essay

- Decision-Making Model Analysis Decisions. Decisions. Decisions. How do you make decisions. Have you ever asked yourself, “How did I make that decision?” Whether big or small, important or not so important, decision making is a process. Some people way the pros and cons while others may just flip a coin. Are decisions based on feelings, outcomes or information. Often times if we just go with our gut feeling will be miss out on important information that should be included in our decision. Decision-making can be a cognitive process of selecting a course of action form various options....   [tags: Decisions Psychology Decide Essays]

Strong Essays
789 words (2.3 pages)

Should Adolescents Commit Serious Offenses Be Tried And Convicted As Adults?

- Developmental Issue and Question: Human beings are natural learners. As natural as it is, learning begins with time and experience, with passing time, the expansion of knowledge and maturity in development. Pre-adulthood is the period of experiment where, the search for identity, purpose, as well as belonging takes place. At times, searching leads to felony, which introduce to the debate: Can we trial adolescence as adults. If so, what and when should the measures be used. Illustrating this issue is the article Should Adolescents Who Commit Serious Offenses Be Tried and Convicted as Adults....   [tags: Crime, Adolescence, Criminology, Decision making]

Strong Essays
726 words (2.1 pages)